The Name list of Islamic terms

16 June 2012

`Aadah Custom, practice. A local custom which is not in conflict with the Qur'an or the Sunnah (qv.) is admissible as part of Islamic law.

‘Abd servant, worshipper, slave. Muslims consider themselves servants and slaves of Allah. Common Muslim names such as Abdullah (Servant of Allah), Abdul-Malik (Slave of the King), Abdur-Rahmān (Slave of the most Beneficent), Abdus-Salām (Slave of Peace), all refer to names of Allah.

Abaa wass stakbara ma' al-tasdeeq (al-Kufr) A major disbelief. Refusing to bow to Allah due to pride, even though acknowledging the Divine Truth. It is the type of Kufr that Iblis committed.

Abada For ever.

Abu Al-Qasim It is the Kunya of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). It is prohibited to have the Kunya of the Prophet (saw) at the same time having his name (i.e Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad) See Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 205,book 73, Vol.8 Sahih Muslim, Kitab-ul Adab.

A.H. (Anno Hegirae -In the year of the Hijra) means After Hijrah. It is the reference used in the Islamic calendar, instead of A.D. which is used in the Christian calendar. The Islamic calendar starts from the year Prophet Muhammad (saw) emigrated from the city of Makkah to Madinah, in July 16th 622 C.E.

'Ad An ancient tribe that lived after the Prophet Nooh (Noah)(as) in the village of Ahqaf in the Yemen. It was a very prosperous tribe, but was rebellious against Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala and their Prophet Houd (as). So Allah Ta'ala destroyed it with a fatal westerly windstorm (Ad-Dabour). See Holy Qur'an, Houd (11):50-60.

Adab Traditionally describes good manners, as in etiquette. For example, being courteous is good adab. However, the term can be used very broadly, and the proper translation would be "the proper way to go about something," as in the example, Aadaab al Qitaal, or, "The Proper Way of Fighting in War," (Qitaal in Arabic means mortal combat) in which the word "etiquette" does not befit the context.

Adhan The call for the daily prayers are called Adhan. The person who calls the Adhan is called a Mu'adhin. A Mu'adhin calls the Adhan five times a day before Muslims are to perform their daily Salah (Prayer). The Adhan is composed of specific words and phrases to be recited loudly in the Arabic language so that the neighbors can recognize the time schedule for the prayers. Sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced Azaan and Adhaan.

'Adhaab Punishment, especially the punishment for failing to obey Allah Ta'ala. See Qur'an, Aali 'Imran (3):106.

Adhkhar A special type of good scented grass found in the Hijaz area of the Arabian Peninsula. Also known as Idhkhir.

‘Adl Justice, equilibrium especially distributive justice: social, economic, political, environmental.

'Afareet Evil jinns who are large, powerful and very crafty. (sing ifreet) See Qur'an, An-Naml (27):39.

Afwu (Al-'Afuwwo) The Forgiver or Pardoner, in the sense of obliterating the memory of wrongdoings from one's mind. One of the ninety-nine attributes of Allah Ta' ala. See Maghfirah .

Ahad literally "one." Islamically, ahad means One Alone, unique, none like Allah. Al-Wahid is one of the names of Allah.

Ahaadeeth (sing hadeeth) The verbalized form of a tradition of the Prophet, peace be on him, constitutive of his Sunnah. A hadeeth narrative is divided into two parts: the isnaad (chain of transmission) and the matn (content of the narrative).

Ahkām rulings and orders of the Qu'ran and Sunnah. In Islam, orders are subdivided into six distinct categories:

  1. Compulsory, (Fard) = severe punishment if disobeyed. This takes two forms:
  2. Fard 'ain = compulsory on every person, e.g. Salat.
  3. Fard kifaya = compulsory on at least one person in the community, e.g. Salat al-Janaza.
  4. Necessary but not compulsory (Wajib), e.g. Salat al-Juma'.
  5. Recommended but not compulsory (Mustahab), e.g. Sunnah prayers, Sadaqa.
  6. Legal and allowed (Halal), e.g. eating good food, marriage.
  7. Disapproved of, but not forbidden (Makrouh)
  8. Forbidden (Muharram, Haram), e.g. Zina (fornication and adultery).

Ahl al-Bait literally means 'the people of the house', a polite form of addressing the members of the family, including husband and wife. Members of Muhammad's Household.The words occur in the Qur’an when angels came to give glad tidings to Prophet Abraham (as) of a son at an old age. See Surah Houd (11:73).

Ahl al-Dimmah (Dhimmis) are the non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic state who have been guaranteed protection of their rights- life, property and practice of their religion, etc.

Ahl al Dhikr Literally, people of remembrance. Refers to true scholars whose knowledge springs from and is steeped in the remembrance of God.

Ahl al-Hadith Refers to the group of scholars in Islam who pay relatively greater importance to 'traditions' authenticated sayings of the Prophet than to other sources of Islamic doctrine such as qiyas, and tend to interpret the traditions more literally and rigorously. and who are wary of using independent reasoning (ra'ee) in making juristic judgments. Used in contradistinction to ahl al ra'ee (ra'i). The term has also come to be used lately for a group of Muslims who are close to the Hanbali school in theology, and claim to follow no single school on legal matters.

Ahl al Sunnah Literally, people of the Sunnah. Refers to the vast majority of Muslims who follow the Sunnah of the Prophet and the precedents of his rightly-guided successors. Used in contradistinction to the Shee`ah who believed that `Alee, the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law, should have been his immediate successor. Ahl al Sunnah wa al Jamaa`ah - the community united behind the Sunnah of the Prophet. The saved sect.

Ahlul-Fatrah people who live in ignorance of the teachings of a revealed religion, but according to the "Fitra", the "Natural Religion" innate to human nature as created by Allah.

Ahl al-Kitab literally 'People of the Book,' refers to the followers of Divine Revelation before the advent of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). Jews and Christians.

Ahlul Kitab wa sunnah Literally means "the People of the Book (the Holy Qur'an) and the sayings and traditions, (the Sunnah of Muhammad saw)". This refers to the people who strive to follow exactly the teachings of the Qur'an and Muhammad (saw) without any deviations.

Ahwat is a precaution. This can be obligatory or optional as ruled by the Mujtahid.

Al-Akhirah (After-Life, Hereafter, Next World). The term embraces the following ideas.
That man is answerable to God.
That the present order of existence will some day come to an end.
That when that happens, Allah will bring another order into being in which He will resurrect all human beings, gather them together and examine their conduct, and reward them with justice and mercy.
That those who are reckoned good will be sent to Paradise whereas the evil-doers will be consigned to Hell.
That the real measure of success or failure of a person is not the extent of his prosperity in the present life, but his success in the Next.

Ajal Appointed time. In Islamic terminology it refers to the (appointed) time of death. Allah Ta'ala says in the Qur'an that He will not, (and therefore no-one else can), alter the time of someone's death. Muslims reject such statements as "the doctor saved his life", or "he would have lived longer in..". Such statements are made by those who do not believe in Allah or do not have the understanding of the necessity to believe in Allah, thus exposing themselves to Shirk (associating partners with Allah), by believing and saying that the power over life and death is within human capability.

Ajza Parts. The Holy Qur'an is divided into thirty parts. Singular: Juz.

Akala Literally means "ate". In Islamic theology, it usually means:
1.   Devouring what is forbidden, whether it be mental, moral, social, physical or spiritual. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Maida (5):69.
2.   Spiritual "eating" of the good things in the Hereafter in Jannah (Paradise). See Holy Qur' an, Ar-Ra'd (13)35.

Akbar (Shirk Al Akbar) Major Shirk. This is divided into four categories:
1.   Shirk Ad-Du'a.
2.   Shirk al-Niyyah wal Iraada wal Qasd.
3.   Shirk al-Ta'a.
4.   Shirk al-Muhabbah.
For full explanation see Shirk .

Akhlāq The practice of virtue. Morals.

al`Aamm The `general' as opposed to the `particular' (al khaass). Terms used by jurists in the complex matter of extracting laws from statements composed as codal propositions. Islamic scholarship called `general' (al `aamm) the term which comprehends a plurality, and distinguished two varieties of it - generality in the term itself and generality in the meanings to which the term may refer.

‘Ālamīn Literally "worlds", humankind, jinn, angels and all that exists.

Al-arsh The Throne of Allah al-Malik al-Qudus al-Aziz al-Hakeem. See Surah Ta-Ha (20)5. The 'Arsh is the immense starless heaven that encompasses the visible Universe, which is referred to as the Kursi. 'Ali (ra) said that the relationship of the Kursi to the 'Arsh is like that of a small ring lying in the middle of a vast desert. This is why 'Arsh is correctly translated as 'Throne' and Kursi as 'Seat or 'Foot-stool', although sometimes those who are unaware of the existence and nature of the Arsh translate Kursi as 'Throne'.

al-Aqsa Masjid-ul-Aqsa (The Farthest Mosque) in Jerusalem, often known as the Dome of the Rock.

Alayhis Salam (as) "Peace be upon him" This expression normally follows after naming a prophet (other than Muhammad –saw-), or one of the noble Angels (i.e. Jibreel [Gabriel], Mikaeel [Michael], etc.)

Al-ghurru al-muhajjalun A name that will be given to those Muslims who, on the Day of Resurrection, will have parts of their bodies shining due to their perfect ablution practices. See Sahih Bukhari 138, book 4, Vol.1.

Alif lam mim Abbreviated letters, called al-Muqatta' at, revealed at the start of certain Surah of the Qur'an.

Al-Juhfa Miqat (a measure of weight for weighing gold in this world and deeds on the Day of Judgment in the next world) of the people of Shaam.

al-Khulafa-ur-Rashidun The rightly guided Khalifahs. The first four successors to the leadership role of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). They were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali. (May Allah be pleased with them).

Al-kursi The Seat of Allah, al-Hayyu al-Qayoum. The size of His Seat extends over all the heavens and earth. Even though it is such a huge creation, it is still much smaller than the 'Arsh (the Throne) of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 2 ayah 255 is called Ayatul Kursi. See also 'Arsh.

al-Madinah Madinatu'n-Nabi (The city of the Prophet). The name given to Yathrib after the Prophet Muhammad (saw) migrated there in 622 CE and founded the first Islamic state.

Ahl ar-ra'y means people of opinion. It is refers to people that are consulted on Islamic matters. These people are highly learned in Islam.

Ahmad is another name of Muhammad (saw). See Qur’an, As-Saff (61:6). See Muhammad for more details

Ahzab means parties. Ahzab is used to describe the different tribes that fought the Muslims in the Battle of the Ditch in 627 C.E., 5 A.H..

Al-asharatu mubashshirun (bil-Jannah) the ten people that were given the glad tidings of assurance of entering Paradise. They were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, Talhah ibn Ubaydullah, az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa'id ibn Zayd.

Al-hamdu lillahi rabbil 'alamin This is a verse from the Qur'an that Muslims recite and say many times per day. Other than being recited daily during prayers, a Muslim reads this expression in every activity of his daily life. The meaning of it is: "Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds." A Muslim invokes the praises of Allah before he does his daily work; and when he finishes, he thanks Allah for His favors. A Muslim is grateful to Allah for all His blessings. It is a statement of thanks, appreciation, and gratitude from the creature to his Creator.

Alim (pl. Ulamah) a learned person in Islam, scholar; An Islamic religious scholar. One who knows. A scholar (in any field of knowledge); a scientist (who knows science) or a theologian (who knows religion)

Allah The true name for the creator of the Universe is Allah. It is an Arabic word of rich and varied meaning, denoting the one who is adored in worship, who creates all that exists, who has priority over all creation, who is lofty and hidden, who confounds all human understanding. It is exactly the same word as, in Hebrew, the Jews use for God (Eloh), the word which Jesus Christ used in Aramaic when he prayed to God. God has an identical name in Judaism, Christianity and Islam; Allah is the same God worshipped by Muslims, Christians and Jews. "He is God, the One God, Independent and Sought by all; He begets not, nor is He begotton, and there is none like unto Him." (The Holy Qur'an, Surah Al-Ikhlas) Islam teaches that all faiths have, in essence, one common message: the existence of a Supreme Being, the one and only God, whose sovereignty is to be acknowledged in worship and in the pledge to obey His teaching and commandments, conveyed through His messengers and prophets who were sent at various times and in many places throughout history. He is the Merciful, the Beneficent, the Knowledgeable, the Protector, the Mighty, the God, the Provider, the Exalted, the Lord, the All-Knowing, the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the Magnificent, the Wise, the Loving, the First, the Last, and the Eternal. The Qur'an mentions around 100 beautiful names for Allah through which Muslims may understand and recognize Him, and His responsibilities for the whole Universe.

Allahu akbar This statement is said by Muslims numerous times. During the call for prayer, during prayer, when they are happy, and wish to express their approval of what they hear, when they slaughter an animal, and when they want to praise a speaker, Muslims do say this expression of Allahu Akbar. Actually it is most said expression in the world. Its meaning: "Allah is the Greatest." Muslims praise Allah in every aspect of life; and as such they say Allahu Akbar.

Allahumma "O Allah."

Allah ta'ala Allah the Exalted. See Subhana hu wa Ta'ala.

Amānah the trust. Of all creation, only human beings carry the "trust", which is free will.

Amin (Aamin, Aameen, Amen) a supplication meaning, "O God, accept our invocation!" And also means custodian or guardian. Someone who is loyal or faithful.

Amir means leader or commander.

Amir al-mumineen means commander of the believers. This title was given to the Khalifah. Title of the leader of the Islamic dominion after the death of Prophet Muhammad (saw).

Al Amr Bi'l Maruf Islamic doctrine of enjoining right. The full version is "Amr bill Ma'roofwa nahi 'anil Munkar", (enjoining the good and forbidding the evil.

Anbiyaa (Al) "The Prophets". Surah 21 of the Qur' an.

Ansaab Idols. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/219

Ansar means helpers. These were the people of Madinah who responded to the Prophet's call to Islam and offered Islam a city-state power and Muslims of Madina who helped the Muhajirin (immigrants) of Makka in the process of the latter's settling down in the new environment.

Aqabah a place just outside of Mecca, in Mina where the first Muslims from Yathrib Madinah pledged allegiance to the Prophet in the year 621 C.E.. A similar meeting took place the next year when more Muslims from Yathrib pledged their allegiance to the Prophet.

'Aqeeda (‘Aqīdah pl ‘aqaaid) literally means The Islamic creed; belief. In Islamic terms, it means the following six articles of faith:
1.   Belief in Allah.
1.   He is the Lord and Creator of all that there is.
2.   He is the True God and all other deities are false.
3.   He is One, and has no associates (sons or otherwise).
4.   He alone has the knowledge of the Unseen and of the Hour.
5.   In His Names and Attributes.
6.   He never came down to earth in any shape or form.
7.   He is Everlasting, He did not beget nor was He begotten, and He is not like anything.
2.   His Mala'ikah (angels).
1.   They are His honored servants.
2.   They act only by His command.
3.   They are made out of light ( Nur ).
4.   They obey all of Allah's commands.
5.   All angels are good and incapable of wrong doing. (We do not believe in the notion of a "fallen angel".)
6.   They may be seen by some men only by Allah's consent.
3.   His Revealed Books.
1.   He has sent down books with every messenger.
2.   The original books of Allah that were sent to the Prophets Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus no longer exist in their original form. We believe only in the original Taurat (Torah), Zaboor (Psalms) and Ingeel (Gospel).
3.   The Holy Qur'an that was revealed to the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the only perfect book of Allah that is free from corruption and is a true source of light for all mankind.
4.   His Rusull (Messengers).
1.   The Messengers of Allah Ta'ala include Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Abraham, Noah, Jesus, Moses, peace be on them all.
2.   All messengers are human beings.
3.   Muhammad's message encompasses and abrogates all the messages of all the other messengers, since Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the last Messenger and the Holy Qur'an is the Last Message from Allah before the end of the world.
5.   Belief in the Day of Judgment.
1.   In the Final Day, which is the Day of Judgment.
2.   There will be no intercessors except by Allah's leave.
3.   Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, will be given permission to intercede on behalf of all those who believed in Allah and the Last Day and who submitted their will to Him, that is, those who are "Muslims" (Muslim = One who submits his or her will to Almighty Allah).
4.   Heaven is for the believers and Hell is for the rejecters.
5.   Our book of deeds will be given to us in our right or left hand (to the believers and unbelievers respectively).
6.   Belief in Fate and the Divine Decree.
1.   In fate, whether good or bad, which Allah has measured and ordained for all His creatures.
2.   His decree cannot be changed except by His leave.
3.   Allah has granted man the free will to choose between good and evil. Thus, there is no excuse for wrong action in the sight of Allah Ta'ala.
4.   All that is to happen until the Day of Judgement is already written down on the Lauh al-Mahfudh.

Aqiqah  Islamic practice of shaving the head of the new born male and contributing the weight in silver for charity as well as 2 lambs for a baby boy. One lamb is slaughtered for a baby girl.

‘Aql Intelligence, intellect, mind, understanding

Arkan singular rukn The five rukn "pillars" of Islam.
1.   Shahadatain, bearing witness. All Muslims must believe in and utter the Shahadatain.
o   The First Shahada is: Ashhadu an la illaha illal'lah. (I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.)
o   The Second Shahada: Ashhadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah. (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) Singular: Shahada = bearing witness. Dual: Shahadatain = bearing witness.
2.   Salat, prayers. To perform all the five compulsory daily Salat (prayers) regularly in the exact manner as was practised by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
3.   Seeaam, fasting. Also spelled as Saum. To fast in the month of Ramadan.
4.   Zakat, wealth dues. To pay 2.5% of one's yearly savings o the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at least) the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold at the fime when the annual Zakat payment is due. Zakat is also due on other things such as silver, animals, crops, etc. For full explanation on Zakat refer to the relevant books written on the subject.
5.   Hajj, pilgrimage. To perform the pilgrimage to the Holy City of Makkah at least once in one's lifetime (if one is able to afford it)

Araak (Al) A tree from which Siwak is made. See Siwak.

Al-A`rab signifies the bedouin -whether of the desert or the countryside- in the vicinity of Madina. For a long time they had followed a policy of opportunism with regard to the conflict between Islam and unbelief. However, as Islam established its sway over the greater part of Hijaz and Najd and the power of the tribes hostile to Islam began to weaken, they saw their interests lay in entering the fold of Islam. For details see Surah 9.

Al-Baqi' A cemetry in Madinah. Many of the Sahabiyeen (companions) and family members of the Prophet (S.A.W.) are buried here.

Al-Uzza  has been identified with Venus, but it was worshipped under the form of an acacia tree, and was the deity of the Ghatfan tribe.

Arafat a plain about 25 kilometers east of Makkah al-Mukaramah. It is on this plain that humanity will be raised on the Day of Judgment for questioning and judgment. During the Hajj on the ninth day of the month of Zhu-l-Hijjah, Muslim pilgrims gather on this plain for one day; staying there from mid-day to sunset is the essence of the Hajj.

'Areem May be translated as dams or embankments. The 'Areme (dam) that is referred to in Surah 34/16 is the Maarib Dam whose traces still exist in Yemen.

Asabiyyah means tribal loyalty, nationalism.

Asbaab al Nuzool The causes or the circumstances and events surrounding a particular revelation of the Qur'an. It is the specific reason and circumstances for the revelation of various verses of the Qur'an. Knowledge of the asbaab al nuzool helps provide an understanding of the original context and intent of a particular revelation. This knowledge is necessary for determining the ratio legist of a ruling and whether, for example, the meaning of the revelation is of a specific or of general application.

Asghar (Kufr Al) A minor disbelief. Being unappreciative of what Allah Ta'ala has provided. See Kufr.

Asghar (Shirk Al) A minor Shirk:
1.   Shirk ar-Rea'. It is carrying out a religious act for worldly gains and not for the pleasure of Allah. For example, giving Zakat (charity) for the sake of fame or praise.
2.   Shirk At-Tasmee':
1.   Swearing by other than Allah.
2.   To say: "I depend on Allah and you."
3.   To depend on any man.
4.   To say: "Oh Allah, by the honor of Muhammad (or other than him) do such and such for me."
5.   Any belief, saying or action that might lead to al-Shirk al-Akbar (major Shirk). See Shirk.

Ashab al-A`raf (Heights) will be the people who are neither righteous enough to enter Paradise nor wicked enough to be cast into Hell. They will, therefore, dwell at a place situated between the two.

Ashab Al-Maimana Literally means "companions of the Right", the righteous people. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah Ta'ala will sort out the good and the evil. They will be divided into three groups:
1.   Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are nearest to Allah Ta'ala.
2.   Ashab al-Maimana - the righteous people, those who are destined to enter Jannah (Paradise).
3.   Ashab al-Mash'ama - literally means "companions of the Left"; these people will be the inheritors of the Nar (Hellfire).
For full explanations of: Muqarraboon, see Surah Al-Waqi'ah (56):11-26; Ashab al-Maimana, see Surah 56:27-40. Ashab al-Mash 'ama, see Surah Al-Waqi'ah (56):41-56.

Ashab Al-Mash'ama Literally means "Companions of the Left", the evil-doers. These people will he the companions of the Nar (Hellfire) on the Day of Resurrection. For full explanation: See Ashab al-Maimana . See Holy Qur'an, Al-Wa qi'a 56/41-56.

Ashabul Aika Dwellers of the wood. Another name for the Midianites. See Madyan . See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hijr (15):78, Al-Shu'ara (26):176-191.

Ashraful Mursaleen The most honored of all the prophets. One of the titles of the Prophet Muhammad (saw).

Ashab al-Suffah consisted of about three or four hundred Companions who spent most of their time in the company of the Prophet (saw). They acquired knowledge and had dedicated themselves completely to serving Islam.

Asiya The wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh). She is one of the four greatest created females, the other three being:
1.   Mariam (Mary), may Allah be pleased with her, the mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him.
2.   Khadijah ,may Allah be pleased with her, the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
3.   Fatima, may Allah be please with her, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Aslaha Reformed, mended, corrected, improved ways of behaviour. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Anbiyaa (21):90.

Asma wa Sifaat (Tawheed Al) Unity of Names and Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. To believe that:
1.   None can qualify or name Allah except as He or the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named or qualified Him.
2.   None can be named or qualified with the Names of the Attributes that belong only to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. For example, none may be called 'Al-Muhyee" (the Giver of Life) except for Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself.
3.   We must believe in all the Ayat and Ahadeeth (Sahih) regarding the Attributes of Allah without altering their meaning in any way whatsoever.
See Tawheed .

Al-Asma al-Husna literally meaning the 'most excellent names' used of God, express His greatness and paramountcy, holiness, purity, and the perfection and absoluteness of all His attributes.

Assalamu alaikum This is an expression Muslims say whenever they meet one another. It is a statement of greeting with peace. The meaning of it is: "Peace be upon you." Muslims try to establish peace on earth even through the friendly relation of greeting and meeting one another. The other forms are: "Assalamu 'Alalikum Wa Rahmatullah," which means: "May the peace and the Mercy of Allah be upon you," and "Assalamu Alalikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh," which means: "May the peace, the mercy, and the blessings of Allah be upon you."

Asl (pl. usool)   Root, origin, source; principle.

Aslim Taslam "Submit to Islam"

Asr the late afternoon obligatory Salah, the third compulsory Prayer of the day. It can be prayed between mid-afternoons and a little before sunset. It is also the name of Surah 103 of the Holy Qur’an and also means "era".

As-Siddiq "The Truthful". This title was given to Abu Bakr (ra) by the Prophet Muhammad (saw). When the Prophet Muhammad (saw) related his experience of al-Isra (his night journey to the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem) wal Mi'raj (and his ascension through the seven heavens) to Abu Bakr (ra) he immediately and without any reservation replied "Sadaqt": "You have spoken the truth". From that time on, Abu Bakr (ra) came to be known as Abu Bakr as-Siddiq.

Akirāh   The bridge on which judgement of where a person's Akhira (afterlife) will lie is passed.

‘Āshūrā’ Tenth day of the month of Muharram. It is the day Allah saved Moses and the children of Israel from the Pharaoh. The grandson of the prophet Muhammad, Imam Hussayn sacrificed his life along with 72 of his companions on the sand dunes of Karbala. Scholars recommended to fast during this day.
Astaghfirullah This is an expression used by a Muslim when he wants to ask Allah forgiveness. The meaning of it is: "I ask Allah forgiveness." A Muslim says this phrase many times, even when he is talking to another person. When a Muslim abstains from doing wrong, or even when he wants to prove that he is innocent of an incident he uses this expression. After every Salah (payer), a Muslim says this statement three times.

Athar Sayings of the Sahabah, the companions of the Prophet (saw).

A'uzu billahi minashaitanir rajim (Audhu billah; ’A‘ūdhu billāh) This is an expression and a statement that Muslims have to recite before reading to Qur'an, before speaking, before doing any work, before making a supplication, before taking ablution, before entering the wash room, and before doing many other daily activities. The meaning of this phrase is: "I seek refuge from Allah from the outcast Satan." Allah is the Arabic name of God. This is a paraphrase on the beginnings of the two last suras in the Qur'an. Satan is the source of evil and he always tries to misguide and mislead people. The Qur'an states that Satan is not an angel but a member of the Jinn, which are spiritual beings created by Allah. So the belief that Satan is a fallen angel is rejected in Islam.

Awliyaa Protectors, friends, supporters, helpers. Comes from the same root word as Maula. Singular: Walee.

Awqiyyah means weight, like the ones used to weigh items.

Awrah (aurah) parts of the body that are not supposed to be exposed to others (The part of a person's body that must be covered before everybody but a spouse.). For men this is from the navel to the knee. For the women it is all of her body except the hands, feet, and face. It may also be used to refer to what must be concealed of a woman before non-related men.

Ayah The Arabic meaning of Ayah is a miracle and a sign (or 'token') which directs one to something important. The Qur'an is considered to be a miracle itself. Each verse or sentence is called an Ayah or a miracle. The plural of Ayah is called Ayat, which means miracles. In the Quran the word has been used in four different senses: (1) sign or indication; (2) the phenomena of the universe (called ayat of God for the reality to which the phenomena point is hidden behind the veil of appearances); (3) miracles performed by the Prophets; and (4) individual units (i.e. verses) of the Book of God.

Ayat it is the plural form of Ayah.

Ayat ul-Kursi Surah Baqara, Ayah 256 of the Quran. It is called the throne of the Qur’an.

1.   "Al-'Aziz". The Almighty. One of the ninety-nine attributes of Allah Ta'ala. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hajj' (22):40. See Asmaul Husna
2.   Title of Egyptian noblemen during the time of the Pharaohs. Zulaikha was the wife of the 'Aziz who tried, but failed, to tempt the Prophet Yusuf (Joseph), peace be on him, into seduction. See Holy Qur' an, Yusuf(12):23 - 24.

Azlaam Literally means "arrows". It was used in divination to seek good fortune in any decision taken by the pre-Islamic pagan Arabs. See Holy Qur' an, al-Maida (5):90.

Azwaja Pairs, as in husband and wife.


Ba'ath In Islamic terminology this means the resurrection of the Muslims and the Kuffar (unbelievers). The Ba'ath of the Kuffar (unbelievers) and the subsequent stages leading to the Nar (Hellfire) is in five stages:
1.   The Kuffar will be raised with all their senses being active, i.e. they will be able to feel, see, hear, smell and taste.
2.   On their way to the place of judgment they will still have their senses active.
3.   They will be judged with all their senses intact.
4.   On their way to Nar (Hellfire) they will lose all their senses.
5.   When put into the Nar (Hellfire), they will regain all their senses so as to feel Allah Ta'ala's wrath.

Baatin (Antonym: Dhahir) has no exact translation, but the closest translation is "what is inwardly hidden, unseen; the thing or feeling that is hidden away from human vision or knowledge." No created being has the 'Jim al-Baatin (the knowledge of the unseen), except with the permission of Allah Ta' ala. The knowledge of the unseen belongs to Allah Ta'ala only. Anyone who claims to have or claims that someone else has the knowledge of the unknown is in fact committing Shirk (associating a created being with Allah Ta'ala in His Attributes).

Baatin (Al) Has no literal meaning, but indicates "the Inwardly Hidden". It also means the One Who is close to His Creation by His Knowledge, Sight and Listening. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala.

Baab al Raiyan The name of one of the eight gates of jannah (Paradise) through which the people who often observe fasting will enter on the Day of Judgement.

Badana (Plu: Budn) A she-camel offered as a sacrifice.

Badiyyah a desert or semi-arid environment.

Badr the first full military confrontation between the Muslims and the enemies of Allah. The battle took place between the Muslims and the Quraish of Mecca in the second year of Hijrah (624 C.E.). Eventhough the Muslims were outnumbered, the final result was to their favor. Badr is located about 150km south of al-Madinah al-Munawarah. The Muslim army consisted of 313 men and the Quraish had a total of 1,000 soldiers, archers and horsemen. See Qur'an, Al-Anfal 8/5-19,42-48, Aali lmran 3/13.

Baghawat insurgency against a legitimate government

Baghia Prostitute. This is the accusation that the Jews leveled against the Virgin Mary (Mother of Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be upon them, when she conceived the Prophet Isa, peace be on him, without a father. May Allah curse those who even harbor such an accusation.

Bagyan Rejecting or disobeying, not through conviction, but through personal greed, jealousy, the desire to be different or just for show. See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Imran (3):19.

Bahimah (plur baha'im) signifies every quadruped animal (of which the beasts of prey are excluded). Bahimah thus refers to goats, sheep, and cows.

Bai'a  pledge

Baitullah (baytullāh) A mosque, literally "house of God".

Baitul Hamd House of praise to Allah in the Akhira; hereafter.

Baitul Ma'amur (Al) House of Allah over the Seventh Heaven where the Malaikah (angels) pray.

Baitul Madaris A place in al-Madinah that used to be a Jewish centre.

Baitul Maqdis (Masjid Al-Aqsa) The famous Masjid (mosque) in al-Quds (Jerusalem). It wasthe first Qiblah of Islam. Then Allah Ta'ala ordered Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to face the first House of Allah (the Ka' aba) at Makkah al-Mukaramah. Baitul Maqdis is the third greatest Masjid in the Islamic world,the first being the Masjid al-Haram in Makkah and the second being the Masjid al-Ra sool, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at al-Madinah. It is from the surroundings of Baitul Maqdis that Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ascended to heaven. See Qur'an, Al-Isra(17):].

Bakka Another name for Makkah. See Qur'an, Aali 'Imran 3/96.

Bakka'in means weepers. These were the people that could not accompany the Prophet on his campaign to Tabuk because they lacked the resources to do so. They started to weep when they could not go.

Bani al Asfar The Byzantines.

Bani Israeel "Tribe of Israel". The descendants of the twelve sons of Yacoub, who was also called Israeel, the son of Ishaq, who was, the son of the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be on them all. Another name for Suratul al-Isra. Surah 1 7of the Holy Qur' an.

Bani Jadilah Name of Mu'awiya's palace in Madinah.

Bani Nadheer A Jewish tribe who lived about three miles south of Madinah during the time of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Four months afier their treachery at the time of the Battle of Uhud, when they planned to betray the Muslims and kill the Messenger of Allah, the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, expelled most of them to Syria and the rest to Khaibar. See  Qur'an, Al-Hashr 45/26.

Bani Quraiadha A Jewish tribe from Madinah. Along with the Quraish tribe of Makkah, they plotted to destroy the Prophet Muharnmad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, by attacking the Mu4ims from within Madinah at the Battle of the Ditch, but when they lost they asked to have their fate judged by Sa'd ibn Mu' az (the chief of the Aus 'the Ansar' tribe) because he used to be their ally. Sa'd judged them according to their own law, the Taurat (Torah), and ordered that every male be killed, all their women be sold as captives and all their belongings be divided amongst the Muhajirs (Deut. 20:13-14,16). See Qur' an, Al-Ahzab 33/26-27.

Baqi the cemetery where a good many of the Sahabah are buried. It is in the south-east side of Madinah.

Baraat (Al) "The Immunity". Another name for Suratul Taubah. Surah 9 of the Qur'an.

Barrah Means pious, innocent, clean, inwardly pure.

Barakallah This is an expression which means: "May the blessings of Allah (be upon you)." When a Muslim wants to thank to another person, he uses different statements to express his thanks, appreciation, and gratitude. One of them is to say "Baraka Allah."

BarakAllahu Feekum may Allah bless you; response to expression of thanks.

Barakah means blessing or Divine Grace.

Barzakh Partition or Barrier the divide between the life on earth and the life after. This barrier cannot be crossed except by death and judgement.

Basher Human(s). Literally means 'face' but generally it refers to a person (man/woman).

Batil (baatil) means false of falsehood.

Basīrah Insight, discernment, perceptivity, deep knowledge.

Batineeyah (From baatin meaning hidden or esoteric). A sect of Sufis who sought alleged esoteric meanings behind the words of the Qur'an through allegorical interpretation. They also searched for a living infallible leader and had recourse to Greek Pythagorean theories.

Batul means ascetic. It is ascribed to Fatimah (the Prophets daughter) and the Virgin Mary.

Bawadi plural form of Badiyyah

Bayan (bayaan) Intelligent speech, as opposed to sounds which have no power of expression or meaning. Exposition, explanation, clarification.

Bay'ah it is an oath of allegiance. To make a pledge to a leader, traditionally the Caliph or Imam.

Bayt al-mal (Baitul Mal) the State Treasury in an Islamic State. An Islamic treasury intended for the benefit of the Masakeen (needy Muslims) and not for the leaders or the wealthy.

Bid'a (Bid’ah) Any innovated practices introduced in the religion of Allah. In contradistinction to the Sunnah. Refers to any action or belief which has no precedent in or has no continuity with the Sunnah. The Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that every Bid' a is a deviation from the true path and every deviation leads to Hellfire.

Bidh'a A small amount. Normally the amount is between three to nine, e.g. Bidh' a Tamarat (a few dates), Bidh'a Sanawat (a few years).

Bint daughter

Birr wa Taqwa Righteousness and awe of the Creator which ~nspire a person to be on guard against wrong action and eager for ac don which are pleasing to Allah.

Bismillah In the name of Allah,

Bismillahir rahmanir rahim This is a phrase from the Qur'an that is recited before reading the Qur'an. It is to be read immediately after one reads the phrase: "A'uzu Billahi Minashaitanir Rajim." This phrase is also recited before doing any daily activity. The meaning of it is: "In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful."

Bi'thah the beginning of the Prophet's mission, his call to Prophethood in 610 C.E..

Buhtan A false accusation, calumny, slander.

Buraq An animal larger than a donkey and smaller than a horse on which the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on the Mi' raj. See Mi'raj .

Burda not an Arabic term; means "curtain" in Persian. Means covering or to cover.

Busr means partially ripe dates.


C.E. stands for Christian Era. It is used instead of A.D. in Islamic text referring to the dates before the Hijrah.

Covenant a solemn agreement between two or more persons or groups, a compact between God and man. The Old Testament tells of the covenant the Jews made with Allah.

Caliph (khalīfah) literally successor; refers to the successor of the Prophet Muhammad, the ruler of an Islamic theocratic monarchy


Dabaah 1. The Beast. The beast that will come out of the earth and will speak to man. His appearance will be one of the major signs of the coming of the Last Day.
2. In general, every living creature that moves on this earth. See Holy Qur'an, an-Nami (27):82-83.
Dabour (Ad) A great westerly windstorm. Type of storm that destroyed the people of 'Ad.

Daff tambourine used in Arabia.

Dahr (Ad) "The Time". Another name for Suratul Insan. Surah 76 of the Holy Qur'an. Ad-Dahr indicates the space/time continuum.

Dahri atheist - from the root ad dahr meaning time. In Islam, atheists are seen as those who think that time only destroys, hence the term ad dahriyyah for the concept of atheism.

Da'iy Muslim missionary involved in Da'wah. It can also have a general meaning reffering to someone who calls others to a certain belief.

Dajjal an Islamic figure similar to the Antichrist; means "liar" or "deceiver". Also known as Maseeh ad-Dajjal. See Ahadeeth regarding "the Final Hour" in both Sahih books. Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 649, 650, Vol. IV. Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Fitan wa Isharat as-Say'ah.

Daleel (plu adillah) Proof, indication, evidence. Every ruling or judgment needs to be substantiated by the appropriate daleel in the first instance from the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

Dallal going astray.

Dar al'Ahd the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states.

Dar al-Amn means house of safety; refers to status of a Muslim living in some of the Western world.

Dar ad-Dawa a region where Islam has recently been introduced.

Dar al-Harb means house of war; refers to areas outside Muslim rule at war with Muslim states. The Domain of War refers to the territory under the hegemony of unbelievers, which is on terms of active or potential belligerency with the Domain of Islam, and presumably hostile to the Muslims living in its domain.

Dar al-Islam the abode, or land, of Islam, lands ruled by Islamic Shari'ah.

Dar al-Kufr means domain of disbelief refers to the territory under the hegemony of the unbelievers; the term originally refers to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between Prophet Mohammed's flight to Medina (the Hijra) and the city's conquest.

Dar ash-Shahada See Dar al-Amn

Darūd blessing

Da`wah the call to Islam. (See aslim taslam) Propagation of Islam through word and action, calling the people to follow the commandments of Allah and His Messenger Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). Invitation; call. Refers to the duty of Muslims to invite or call others to return to the straight and natural path of Islam or submission to Allah. This, according to the Qur'an, has to be done with wisdom and beautiful advice. The `most excellent speech' is that of a person who calls others to Allah. Da`wah is addressed to both Muslims and non-Muslims.

Darwīš an initiate of the Sufi Path, one who practices Sufism

Dhahir (Ad) The Outwardly Manifest. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. It means the One Who is above everything and nothing is above Him.

Dhahir The seen or the visible. The thing or feeling that is made known or visible. Antonym: Baatin. See Baatin.

Dhaleen "Those that have gone astray" (Surah 1:7). Refers to the Nasara (Christians), because they have forgotten much of Allah Ta'ala's message and started to worship a human (the Prophet Isa 'Jesus,Son of Mary'), peace be on him, mistaking him for a divine being, and thus placing themselves in the same category as those who worship created objects, such as stars, fire, idols, various animals, etc. See Holy Qur'an, al-Maida (5):15.

Dhawi al-Arhaam Blood relative, especially parents, brothers and sisters, uncles,sons and daughters, and grandparents.

Dhihar is a type of divorce which was common in pre-Islamic Arabia, but was made unlawful by Islam. It was a way when the husband wanted to divorce his wife he would selfishly say to her, "You are like my mother." This way she would have not conjugal rights, but at the same time she would still be bound to him like a slave. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ahzab (33:4), Mujadilah (58:1-5).

Dhikr (zikr) remembrance of God; spiritual exercise; Muslims believe that the primary function of prophets is to remind people of God. A devotional practice whereby the name of God is repeated in a rhythmical manner

Dhikrul-llah Remembrance of Allah Ta'ala. Refers to every deed or action, intended or carried out, that is aimed at gaining Allah Ta'ala's pleasure. The five pillars of lslam are its foundation. Recitation of Qur'an is its heart, and invocation of single Name of Allah, is its end.

Dhi'l-Khalasa Also known as Ka'ba al-Yamaniyah. A place where a pagan idol called Daus used to be worshipped in Yemen in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance.

Dhimmi (Ahl al-Dhimmah) "Protected person"; Jews and Christians (and sometimes others, such as Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, and Zoroastrians), living in an Islamic state whose right to practice their religion is tolerated under Islamic law. a non-Muslim living under the protection of a Muslim state. He is exempt from duties of Islam like military and zakah but must instead pay a tax called jizyah.

Dirham A silver coin.

Dhuhr (duhr) the second (noon) obligatory daily prayer. It can be prayed at any time between noon and mid-afternoon.

Dhu'l Qa'da The 11th month of the Islamic calendar.

Dhu'l-Hijjah The 12th month of the Islamic calendar. The month in which the great pilgrimage to Makkah takes place.

Dīn (deen) the way of life based on Islamic revelation; the sum total of a Muslim's faith and practice. Dīn is often used to mean the faith and religion of Islam. The core meaning of din is obedience. As a Qur’anic technical term, din refers to the way of life and the system of conduct based on recognizing Allah as one's sovereign and committing oneself to obey Him. According to Islam, true din consists of living in total submission to Allah, and the way to do so is to accept as binding the guidance communicated through the Prophets. See the following verses of the Qur'an for reference: 3:83, 12:76, 16:52, and 51:6. Usually translated as 'religion', but in fact meaning 'life-transaction', the transaction being between Allah and each of his created beings. The life-transaction, or religion, of Allah Ta'ala is universal. It is the way of Islam (submisson of will to Allah Ta'ala). He sent the same message to Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus) and all the other prophets, peace be on all of them, but mankind, through ignorance or intentional misguidance by others, has altered the religion of Allah again and again. Allah Ta'ala sent the Qur'an as the final revelation and guidance for mankind and the Jinn who will all be judged on the Day of Resurrection. Also indicates the judgment itself, i.e. "Yaum al-Deen" (Judgement Day).

Din-ul-Fitrah A description of Islam as the natural way of life.

Dhu'l-Noon The Companion of the Fish. This is a title of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah),peace he on him. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Qalam (68):48-50. See Yunus.

Dhu-n nurayn (Zhu-n Nurayn) It means 'Possessor of the Two Lights'. It is used to refer to Uthman ibn Affan because he married two of the Prophet's daughters. Roqayyah and Ummukuluthoom, radiyallahu anhuma.

Dhu'l Qarnain One of the greatest rulers of ancient history. He was a true believer in Allah Ta'ala. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Kahf(18):83.

Dhulm (zulm) Usually wrongly spelled as Zulm. It means injustice, harm, wrongdoing or transgression either against oneself or someone else.
1. Against oneself. Doing deeds or saying words which will bring the displeasure of Allah Ta'ala. These deeds may be physical or spiritual that will ultimately harm the soul.
2. Against others. In any form whatsoever, whether they he physical or mental. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2)35. Its opposite is Nur, light. See Nur.

Dhulumaat Darkness. In the sense of lurking danger. See Holy Qur' an, Al- An'aam (6):63. This is where the word Dhulm (injustice) is derived, for injustice in whatever form is an evil darkness.

Diyya  (Deeyah / Diyah pl. Diyaat) Blood money, paid by the guilty as a compensation for killing, wounding, etc. fine for unintentional murder.

Dua (du’a) personal prayer, supplication; invoking Allah for whatever one desires; Varying forms of personal prayer and supplication.

Du'a (Shirk Al) Invoking or supplicating to a false deity other than Allah Ta'ala, is a major Shirk. See Shirk.

Du'at plural of da'iy.

Duha (Ad) "Forenoon": The mid-morning hours. Surah 93 of the Holy Qur'an.

Dunk Raising of the Kafir in the state of blindness on the Yaum al-Qiama (Day of Resurrection).

Dunya The physical Universe, as opposed to the Hereafter. World. It refers to this existing world. In English it may imply both worlds, i.e. "this world" or "the next world", referring to the Hereafter. Islam preaches that the real success is not in the Dunya (this world), but in the Akhira (Hereafter). The true value of this world does not lie in worldly success, but in how much success one has achieved in gaining the pleasure of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.


Eid (id; eed; ‘eid) The word 'Eid is an Arabic name to mean a festivity, a celebration, a recurring happiness, and a feast. In Islam, there are two major 'Eids namely the feast of Ramadhan ('EId Al-Fitr) and the Feast of Sacrifice ('Eid Al-Adhha). The first 'Eid is celebrated by Muslims after fasting the month of Ramadhan as a matter of thanks and gratitude to Almighty Allah. It takes place on the first day of Shawwal, the tenth month of the lunar calendar. The second 'Eid is the Feast of Sacrifice and it is to be celebrated for the memory of prophet Ibrahim trying to sacrifice his son Isma'il (Ishmael). This 'Eid lasts four days between the tenth and the thirteenth day of Zul-Hijjah, the twelfth month of the lunar calendar.

Eid Al-Adha A four-day festival that completes the rites of pilgrimage and takes place on the 10th-13th of DhuI Hijjah (the 10th is the day of Nahr and 11th-13th are the days of Tashriq). Literally means "the feast of the sacrifice".  It is celebrated from the tenth through the thirteenth days of Zul-Hijjah, the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. This feast commemorates the Prophet Ibrahim's obedience to Allah by being prepared to sacrifice his only son Ismael, peace be on both of them. See Qur' an, As-Saffaat (37)~1OO-1O3.

Eid Al-Fitr Three-day festival marking the end of Ramadan. It takes place on the 1st of Shawal, the 10th month of the Islamic calendar.

Ethiaat  (Ahwat) A Precaution, either obligatory or optional.

Ethiaat-Mustahabbi A preferred precation.

Ethiaat-Waajib An obligatory precation.


Faatihah al Literally, the Opening. The opening chapter of the Qur'an.

Fadal (Riba) A type of interest. Taking something of superior quality in exchange for giving less of the same kind of thing of poorer quality. See Qur'an, Al-Baqarah (2:275-280), Ale-Imran (3:130).

Fahish One who talks evil. Boastful in lewdness.

Fahisha Lewdness. A major sin.

Fai War booty gained without fighting.

Fajarah (Plural of Fajir) Wicked evil doers.

Fajr "The Dawn". The time of the first obligatory prayer (Salah). It can be prayed at any time between the first light of dawn and just before sunrise. Also called Subh (morning). See Surah 89 of the Qur'an.

Falāh (Falaah)  deliverence, salvation, well-being. Success. Real success lies in "enjoining what is right and forbidding what is evil..." (Surah Aali Imran 3/104). One of the sentences that is said during the Adhan and Iqama, "Haya 'alal Falaah" (Come to Success). Other derivations: Muflih = the person who is successful, the person whose deeds and actions have gained Allah Ta'ala's pleasure. See Qur'an, Surah Al-Baqara 2/1-5. See Aflaha: He has succeeded.

Falsafah "philosophy" The methods and content of Greek philosophy which were brought into Islam. A person who tries to interpret Islam though rationalist philosophy was called a faylasuf ("philosopher").

faylasuf ("philosopher") A person who tries to interpret Islam though rationalist philosophy.

Fanā' Sufi term meaning extinction - to die to this life while alive. Having no existence outside of God.

Faqeeh (plu: fuqahaa') Literally, one who has a deep understanding of Islam, its laws, and jurisprudence; a jurist. An Islamic scholar who can give a legal opinion or judgement.

Faqir A poor person. In Islam poverty may take two forms:
1. Wordly : A person who does not have the financial means to help himself.
2. In the Akhira (Hereafter): A person who has failed to gain the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala by way of disobedience, thus earning a place in the Nar (Hellfire).

Faraid Plur of Faridha See faridha.

Al-Faraj the return of the Shia Mahdi.

Fard (plur Fara’id) a religious duty, or an obligatory action on Muslims: praying 5 times a day is fard Neglecting a fard will result in a severe punishment in the hereafter. (See wajib) There are two categories:
1. Fard 'Ain: obligatory on every Muslim who is mature, healthy and sane.
2. Fard Kifaya: obligatory on at least one person in the Muslim community.

Fard 'Ain An action which is obligatory on every Muslim.

Fard bi al-Kifayah It signifies a collective duty of the Muslim community so that if some people carry it out no Muslim is considered blameworthy; but if no one carries it out all incur a collective guilt.

Faridha (Plur Fara'idh) A duty enjoined on all Muslims.

Farsakh League; about three miles.

Faruq This was the name given to Umar ibn Al-Khattab. It means 'One who distinguishes the truth from falsehood'

Fasad literally 'corruption', in Qur'anic terminology, means creating disorder and corruption on earth by following a path other than God's. Islam maintains that true peace and happiness emanate only through the observance of God's commands and through making a conscious effort to see that His laws alone are implemented in every sphere of life. Fasad occurs when man violates God's laws and disobeys Him. Fasad may therefore be partial as well as total; partial when one disregards God's law in one aspect of life while acknowledging His sovereignty in other spheres. If a society is based on the denial of God, that society is bound to be a corrupt and exploitative society - hence full of fasad.

Fasiq (plur fasiqun) transgressor, evil doer, disobedient. The one who commits fisq. Anyone who has violated Islamic law; usually refers to one whose character has been corrupted.

Far` (plur furoo`) Literally, branch, subdivision. A subsidiary law; a new case (in the context of qiyaas).

Fat'han Mubeena "Manifest Victory". The manifest victory that is referred to here is the peace treaty of Hudaibiyah. It was one of the greatest victories which the newly-born Islamic Ummah (nation) gained. On face value it seemed like a great setback for the Muslims, but in fact it was, by the will of Allah Ta'ala, one of the main means by which the Muslims consolidated and grew. See Qur'an, Surah Al-Fath.

Fatwa (Fatwaa) (plur fataawaa) Juridical verdict, legal opinion. A legal verdict given on a religious basis. The sources on which a fatwa is based are the Qur'an, and the Sunnah of the Prophet.

Fawahish applies to all those acts whose abominable character is self-evident. In the Qur'an all extra-marital sexual relationships, sodomy, nudity, false accusation of unchastity, and taking as one's wife a woman who had been married to one's father, are specifically reckoned as shameful deeds. In Hadith, theft, taking intoxicating drinks and begging have been characterized as fawahish as have many other brazenly evil and indecent acts.

Fauz Al-Adheem The supreme victory, achievement, attainment, happiness, etc. The Fauz al-Adheem is realised only when one has gained the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala and thus gained a place in the Jannah (Paradise). All worldly gains and victories count for nothing if they have not earned one a place in Paradise. Allah has repeatedly stated that the real victors are the inheritors of Paradise. See Qur'an, Al-Maida 5/122.

Festivities Other than the two general feasts, there are few festivities that Muslims do enjoy. These are related to different activities or functions. Some of these activities are:
1- 'Aqiqah: It is a dinner reception to be made after a child is born. Relatives, friends, and neighbors are invited for such an occasion.
2- Walimah: It is a dinner reception to be made after a marriage is consummated. It is offered by the parents and/or by the married couples. Friends, relatives, and neighbors are also invited.

Fi Amanullah May Allah protect you. Said when a person departs.

Fi sabil Allah (in the way of Allah) is a frequently used expression in the Qur'an which emphasizes that good acts should be done exclusively to please God. Generally the expression has been used in the Qur'an in connection with striving or spending for charitable purposes. For the sake of Allah; common Islamic expression for performing acts such as charity or Jihad and for 'qatlu' (fighting in mortal combat for the sake of Allah.

Fidya Compensation for missing or wrongly practicing necessary acts of worship. Fidya usually takes the form of donating money, foodstuffs, or sacrificing an animal. Contrast with Kaffara (making amends).

Fir'aun (Pharaoh) Tide of the Ancient Egyptian rulers, particularly the one who rejected the Prophet Musa (Moses), peace he on him, and tried to have him killed. They were famous for their cruelty and disbelief. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/49, Ta Ha 20)/9-80, Al-Qasas 28/1-42, Al-Fajr 89/1O-14.

Firdaus The middle and the highest part of the Jannah (Paradise).

Fiqh Literally, understanding. Islamic jurisprudence built around the shariah by custom (al-urf). The legal science founded mainly on rules and principles developed by human reasoning (ijtihaad) and the body of knowledge so derived. Fiqh may therefore vary from one jurist or school of thought to another. The term "fiqh" is sometimes used synonymously with Sharee`ah. However, while fiqh is to a large extent the product of human endeavor, the Sharee`ah is closely related to divine revelation and knowledge which is only obtained from the Qur'an and the Sunnah. The meaning of the word fiqh is understanding, comprehension, knowledge, and jurisprudence in Islam. A jurist is called a Faqih who is an expert in matters of Islamic legal matters. A Faqih is to pass verdicts within the rules of the Islamic Law namely Shariah. The most famous scholars of Fiqh in the history Muslims are the founders of the four schools of thought in Islam: Imam Malik, Imam Ash-Shafi'i, Imam Abu Hanifah, and Imam Ahmad.
Anything or action in Islam falls within the following five categories of Fiqh:
1. Fardh (Must): This category is a must for the Muslim to do such as the five daily prayers. Doing the Fardh counts as a good deed, and not doing it is considered a bad deed or a sin.
It is also called Wajib except for Imam Abu Hanifah who makes Wajib a separate category between the Fardh and the Mubah.
2. Mandub (Recommended): This category is recommended for the Muslim to do such as extra prayers after Zuhr and Maghrib. Doing the Mandub counts as a good deed and not doing it does not count as a bad deed or a sin.
3. Mubah (Allowed): This category is left undecided and left for the person, such as eating apples or oranges. Doing or not doing the Mubah does not count as a good or bad deed. Intention of the person can change Mubah to Fard, Mandub, Makruh, or Haram. Other things could also change the status of the Mubah. For example, any Mubah becomes Haram if it is proven harmful, and any necessary thing to fulfill a Fardh is a Fardh too.
4. Makruh (Hated): This category is a detested and hated such as growing fingernails or sleeping on the stomach. Not doing the Makruh counts as a good deed and doing it does not count as a bad deed.
5. Haram (Prohibited): This category is prohibited for the Muslim to do such as stealing and lying. Doing the haram counts as a bad deed and not doing it counts as a good deed.
Imam Abu Hanifah also puts another category between the Makruh and the Haram. It is called Karahah Tahrimiyyah which means hated almost to the level of Haram.

Fitnah Any affliction which may cause man to go astray and to lose his faith in spiritual values; test, trial, confusion, civil war, oppression. Fitnah has been used in the Quran in two meanings. It refers, firstly, to persecution, to a situation in which the believers are harassed and intimidated because of their religious convictions. Secondly, it refers to the state of affairs wherein the object of obedience is other than the One True God. Trial or tribulation; also refers to any period of disorder, such as a civil war, or the period of time before the end of the world or any civil strife.

This has various meanings, depending on its context in the sentence:
1. Oppression or tumult, as in Surah Al-Baqara 2/93.
2. Trial or punishment, as in Surah Al-Maida 5/74.
3. Trial or temptation, as in Surah Al-Anfal 8/28.
4. It can also mean causing discord between Muslims, or sedition.

Fitrah innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Muslims believe every child is born with fitrah.

Fisq is transgression. It consists of disobedience to the command of God.

Fuqah Plural form of faqeeh.

Furqan signifies that which enables one to distinguish between true and false; between real and fake. The criterion (of right and wrong, true and false); for example, the Qur'an as furqan.


Ghafara (verb in past tense) to forgive, to cover up (sins). A characteristic of Allah.

Ghaflah heedlessness, forgetfulness of Allah, indifference

Ghafir (AL)  "The Forgiver". Another name for al-Mumin Surah 40 of the Holy Qur'an.

Ghaib (Al)  The Unseen. That which is beyond the reach of human perception.
1.   'Ilmul Ghaib : Knowledge of the Unseen. No human has 'Ilmul Ghaib. Only Allah Ta' ala has total command of that knowledge.
2.   BiI Ghaib : In the unseen. All Muslims believe in the Unseen, i.e. all that is revealed to us by Allah Ta'ala in the Qur'an and by the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about the Malaika (angels) and the life in the Akhira (Hereafter) in all its aspects, even though they are invisible to our eyes. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/3.

Ghair Muakkadah (Salat)  Unascertained prayers. These types of optional Salat (prayers) were much, but not always, practised by the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Nafilah.

Gharar   Selling something which has not yet been obtained. For example, selling eggs which have not yet been hatched.

Ghasbi  possessed unlawfully

Ghayy Deception. Name of a pit in Hellfire.

Ghazawat Plural of Ghazwa. Also called al-Maghazi. See Ghazwa

Ghazi Muslim soldier, warrior. A person who has taken part in a Ghazwa.

Ghazwah (al-Maghazi or Ghazawat) military expedition. A holy battle for the cause of Allah the Almighty in which the Prophet Muhammad himself, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took part.

Gheeba Talking evil about someone in his or her absence. Backbiting. See Qur'an, Al-Hujurat 49/12.

Gheera   This has a wide range of meanings. The closest description that may be found in the English language is justifiable jealousy. It signifies a feeling of great anger when something one loves is encroached upon. Of all mankind, it was Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who had the greatest sense of Gheera, for he was the man upon whom Allah chose to bestow such a great honour as has never been bestowed by Him upon any being before or since. The mightiest rank of jelousy is the jealousy for Islam which manifests when one hears someone treat Allah's religion as a jest.

Ghulool Stealing from the war booty before its distribution.

Ghusl Greater ablution. A bath performed in a prescribed manner and which is necessary to ensure purification after certain actions, for example, sexual intercourse, seminal emissions, menstruation. Formal washing of the whole body prior to worship. The full ritual washing of the body with water alone to be pure for the prayer.  Ghusl jenobat is the mandatory shower after having sexual discharge. To do Ghusl:
1.   Wash your private parts.
2.   Do Wudu. See Wudu.
3.   Wash your entire body from top to bottom and from fight to left, without touching your private parts again.
It is necessary to have a Ghusl on embracing Islam, after sexual intercourse or seminal emission, at the end of menstruation, after childbirth and before being buried (when your body is washed for you). It is also customary to have a Ghusl before the Jumua and Eid prayers. It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu (or alternatively to do Tayyamum under certain circumstances) before doing the Salat or touching the Qur'an. see Hadath, Tayammum, Wudu.

Gog and Magog Two evil empires. They are mentioned in the Qur'an and Ahadeeth (Bukhari and Muslim) when mentioning some of the scenes just before the final hour. See Quran, Al-Anbiyaa (21/96), Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Fitan wa Isharat as-Say'ah.


Hadath This consists of two parts:
1. Minor - passing wind, stool or urine. Impurity. Requires Istinja and Wudu.
2. Major - sexual discharge, menstruation and childbirth. Requires Ghusl.

Hadath asghar   minor ritual impurity

Hadath akbar   major ritual impurity which requires Niyyat for cleaning

Hadd Singular of Hudood. Boundary limit between the Halal (lawful) and Haram (unlawful), set by Allah Ta'ala.

Hadeed (Al) "The Iron". Surah 57 of the Holy Qur'an.

Hadeeth see ahaadeeth above.

Hadeeth Da`eef Weak hadeeth. One of the three main categories of hadeeth in contradistinction to saheeh (authentic) and hasan (good) hadeeth. A hadeeth is weak owing to a weakness that exists in its chain of narrators or in its textual content. There are several varieties of weak hadeeth.

Hadeeth Marfoo`Literally, an `elevated' hadeeth. Refers to a hadeeth mursal which is consistent with the precedent of the Companions and which is `elevated' and attributed to the Prophet.

Hadeeth Mashhoor A `well-known' hadeeth; a hadeeth which is originally reported by one, two, or more Companions from the Prophet or from another Companion, but has later become well-known and transmitted by an indefinite number of people during the first and second generation of Muslims.

Hadeeth Munqati A hadeeth with part of its isnaad missing. Also referred to as hadeeth mursal.

Hadeeth Mursal A hadeeth which a person from the second generation of Muslims (Taabi`oon) has directly attributed to the Prophet without mentioning the last link, namely the Companion, who might have narrated it from the Prophet. More generally, a hadeeth with part of its isnaad missing.

Hadeeth Mutawaatir Literally `continuously recurrent' hadeeth. A hadeeth is classified as mutawaatir only when it is reported by a very large number of people of proven reliability in such a way as to preclude any possibility of them all agreeing to perpetuate a falsehood. According to the majority of scholars, the authority of a mutawaatir hadeeth is equivalent to that of the Qur'an.

Hadeeth Saheeh Authentic hadeeth. A hadeeth is classified as saheeh when its narrators are all reliable and trustworthy, when its isnaad is continuous and goes right back to the Prophet, and when the narration is free from any obvious or subtle defects.

Hader Fast recitation of the Qur'an.

Hadi (Al) (hadiy) A cow, sheep or a goat that is offered as a sacrifice by a pilgrim during the Hajj.

Hādī a guide, one who guides; A Muslim name for Allah is The Guide, or Al-Hadi.

Hadith (Hadis, Hadeeth plur Ahadeeth) Reports on the sayings and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) or what he witnessed and approved are called Hadith. These are the real explanation, interpretation, and the living example of the Prophet (s.a.w.) for teachings of the Qur'an. His sayings are found in books called the Hadith books. In the Islamic context it has come to denote the record of what the Prophet (S.A.W.) said, did, or tacitly approved. According to some scholars, the word hadith also covers reports about the sayings and deeds, etc. of the Companions of the Prophet in addition to the Prophet himself. The whole body of Traditions is termed Hadith and its science 'Ilm al-Hadith. Some famous collectors of Hadith are Imam Al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam An-Nasa'i, Imam Abu Dawood, Imam At-Tirmizi, and Imam Majah. There are many others.

Hadith qudsi are hadith's in which the Prophet says that Allah says so and so. The meaning of the these hadith was revealed to the Prophet but he put them in his own words, unlike the Quran; that is not part of the Holy Qur'an which is the word of Almighty Allah and the Prophet conveyed it exactly as it was revealed to him.

1. Obedient service or work.
2. Descendant - son, daughter, grandchild, great grandchild, etc.

Hafadat (Sing Hafada)  Combined plural indicating all descendants - sons, daughters, grandchildren, great grandchildren, etc. See Qur'an, An-Nahl 16/72.

Hafsa , May Allah be pleased with her  Daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, and wife of Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his companions.

Hafiz (Hafidh) Someone who knows the whole Qur'an by heart.

Haid  menstruation

Hajar (Hagar) Wife of the Prophet Ibrahim, and mother of the prophet Isma'il. (Peace be upon them).

Hajar Al-aswad (Al) The 'Black Stone', a stone which some say fell from heaven, set into one corner of the Ka'aba in Makka by the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be upon him, which the pilgrims, in imitation of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, kiss, so unifying all the Muslims throughout the ages in one place.

Hajj (Haj) Major Pilgrimage. Hajj is an Arabic word which means the performance of pilgrimage to Makkah in Arabia. It is one of the five pillars of Islam. A Muslim is to perform Hajj at least once in his/her life, if means (the wealth) and health allow. There are rules and regulations and specific dress to be followed. It is to take place during the last month of the lunar calendar called the month of Zul-Hijjah. A Muslim male who has completed Hajj is called Hajji, and a female Hajjah. The Pilgrimage", which commences on the 8th of Dhu'l-Hijjah. There are three types of Hajj:
1. Hajjat-Tamata'a (interrupted). Umra followed by Hajj, but taking off the Ihram in between these two stages.
2. Hajj al-Qiran (combined). Umra then Hajj without taking off the Ihram.
3. Hajj al-Ifrad (single). Hajj without Umra. A pilgrimage to Makkah in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar is also known as Hajj al-Ifrad. The performance of Hajj consists of ten steps:
1. Put on the Ihram at the appointed station, then recite the Talbiyah. Recitation is done aloud by men and quietly by women. Depending on what type of Hajj you are doing, perform the necessary rites at the Ka'aba on arrival in Makkah. SeeTalbiya.
2. Go to Mina (on the 8th of the month). Pray the Duhr, 'Asr, Maghreb, Isha and Fajr prayers at their proper times, but shortening the four Rak'at to two, as if doing travelling prayers.
3. When the sun rises (on the 9th of the month), go to 'Arafat and combine the Duhr and 'Asr Salat.
4. After the sun sets, go to al-Muzdallifa, reciting the Talbiyah. Combine the Maghreb and the 'Isha Salat. After the Fajr prayer, raise your hands and do Du'a. (After midnight, women and the weak may proceed to Mina if they wish.)
5. In Muzdallifa (or Mina), pick up small stones (either 49 or 70) to throw at the Jamra (stone pillars) of 'Aqaba.
6. Go to Mina (on the 10th of the month);
 Throw seven stones, one stone at a time, at the largest of the three Jamras (the stone pillars that represent Shaitan).
 Sacrifice your animal. You must eat some of its meat, but give the bulk of it to the poor and hungry. (Do this step only if it is required of you. It is not required for Hajj al-Ifrad. If you are doing either of the other two types of Hajj, but cannot afford an animal, then fast three days after you first put on Ihram and seven days after you have returned home.)
 Shave your head. Women only need to cut off a lock of hair. The rules of Ihram are now lifted, except for sexual intercourse with one's spouse.
7. Go to Makkah and do Tawaf al-Ifada. Go to the hills of Safa and Marwa and do Sa'i. Now the rules of Ihram are completely lifted.
8. Return to Mina and stay there for the remainder of the 10th and on the 11th, 12th and the 13th. (You may, if you wish, leave Mina after Asr on the 12th or after Asr on the 13th. You must leave Mina before the sun sets.)
9. Each day, stone each of the three Jamras (the stone pillars) with seven pebbles.
10. If you wish to return home, you must do the Tawaf al-Wida'. No-one is excused, except for menstruating women or women in the period of discharge after childbirth. See Tawaf al-Wida. See Surah 22 of the Qur'an. Performing the Hajj if you are able is one of the Arkan of Islam. See Arkan.

Hajj-al-asghar  Another name for Umra. See Umra.

Hajj-al-wida'  The last farewell Hajj of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, before his death. During that Hajj, Muhammad gave an immortal Khutba called "Khutbatul Wida". This sermon is still remembered word for word, for it confirmed that the Deen of Islam had been completed, transmitted and established by the Messenger of Allah, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his companions and all who follow him in what they are able, with sincerity, until the Last Day.

Hajj al Tamattu performing `Umrah during the Hajj season, and on the Day of Tarwiah a pilgrim gets into the state of Ihram for Hajj. Before making 'Umrah, approach the Miqat and declare the intention. End by sacrificing an animal.

Hajj al Qiran At Miqat, declare intention to perform both Hajj and `Umrah together. After throwing the Jamrah of Al-`Aqabah, and getting hair shaved or cut that take off his Ihram garments and sacrifice animal.

Hajj al Ifrad At Miqat, declare intention for Hajj only. Maintain Ihram garments up to the Day of Sacrifice. No offering is required from him.

Hajjam (hejjam)  One whose profession is cupping.

Hākim a ruler's or gubernatorial title

Hakimiyya  sovereignty

Halal something that is lawful and permitted, good, beneficial, praiseworthy, honourable in Islam. (See mustahabb, mandub, Ahkam).

Halif a person who enjoys the protection of a tribe but does not belong to it by blood.
Halqah a group of students involved in the study of Islam.

Haman   Minister of Fir'aun (Pharaoh) who tried to have all the newborn babies killed at the time when the Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be on him, was born.<

Haml  To carry. Words from the same root: Hamala, he carried;Yahmilou, they carried.

Hamu Brother-in-law to a wife, i.e. her husband's brother.

Hanafi A school of Islamic jurisprudence named after Imam Abu Hanifa.

Hanif  (Haneef Plur ḥunafā') people who during the time of Jahiliyyah rejected the idolatry in their society. These people were in search for the true religion of Prophet Abraham. Upright and true to faith in the Unity of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. Worshipping Allah Ta'ala alone, without associating anything or anyone with Him

Hannah May Allah be pleased with her Grandmother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus, Son of Mary), peace be on them, and wife of 'Imran, may Allah be pleased with him. Since the Prophet isa had maternal grandparents, how can the Christians claim him to be Allah? Since Allah is the Creator of all that there is, and was not created, do the Christians claim that Allah has a family tree? (Since they acknowledge the immaculate conception and the virgin birth, why do they trace the lineage of Jesus through Joseph the carpenter? See Matthew 1:6-16, Luke 3:23-31,) Glory be to Allah, the Most High. Cursed are those who ascribe partners to Him. The punishment of Hellfire awaits those who do not desist from this blasphemy.
Haqq the Truth.

Haraam something which is unlawful or prohibited in Islam. (See mazur, makrouh)

Haram is a sanctuary, a sacred territory. Mecca has been considered a Haram since the time of Abraham. All things within the limit of the Haram are protected and considered inviolable Madinah was also declared a Haram by the Prophet.

Haram Sharif The grand mosque in Makkah, which encompasses the Ka'bah, the hills of Safa and Marwah and the well of Zamzam.

Al-Haramain al-Shariffain the two Holy Sanctuaries the Masjid al-Ha ram in Makkah and Masjid al-Rasool, may Allah give him light and peace in his grave, in Madinah.

Harra Land covered with black stones in Madinah.

Harut and marut Two angels who, by the permission of Allah Ta'ala, taught magic to the people of Babylon. See Qur' an, Al-Baqara 2/102.

Hasad Jealousy. Hasad is forbidden in Islam, except for two specific reasons:
1. Being jealous of a person for memorizing the Holy Qur'an by heart.
2. Being jealous of a wealthy person for expending his wealth in the path of Allah Ta'ala.

Hasan Good, beautiful, admirable. Also a categorization of a hadith's authenticity as "acceptable". (other categorizations include authenic and fabricated).

Hasanaat (Sing Hasana)  Good deeds committed in the path of Allah Ta'ala. These are the deeds by which Allah Ta'ala will judge man and Jinn when deciding whether or not they will enter Jannah.

Hasba A place just outside Makkah where the Hujjaj go after completing the Hajj.

Hawaa (plur ahwaa') Vain or egotistical desire; individual passion; impulsiveness. Following one's own desires is described in the Qur'an as taking these desires as your `god' or object of worship. Following hawaa leads to arrogance and destruction and is contrasted with following the Sharee`ah which is designed to discipline and lead man to fulfillment and happiness.

Hawalah Transference of debt from one person to another by the agreement of both parties.

Hawazin A Quraishi tribe. An Arabian tribe that always gave trouble to the new-born Islamic nation before their conversion to Islam.

Hawd The watering-place of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, whose pure drink will refresh those who have crossed the Siraat before entering the Garden on the Last Day.

Hawiyah The sixth level of Nar (Hellfire). This will be the home of the Christians. See Jahanam.

Hawwa Eve, wife of Adam, peace be on them. She bore many children. Every time she gave birth, they were twins, one male and one female. Each twin married the twin of the other. The two most famous of her offspring were Habil (Abel) and Qaabil (Cain).

Haya This has a wide range of meanings which fall into two categories:
1. Good. i.e. bashfulness, self-respect, good standard of ethics, modesty, etc. In other words, being ashamed to do anything of which Allah the Almighty disapproves or forbids.
2. Bad. Person having the opposite traits to the above. See Bukhari, Hadith 139, Book 73, Vol.8.

Heelah Legal stratagem.

Hidāyah guidance from Allah.

Hifz The Arabic root of this word is Hafiza which means to memorize. In the religious sense, Muslims try to memorize the whole Qur'an. Any person who achieves this task is called Hafiz. A Hafiz is recognized by his community and is given certain privileges.

Hijab Veil. Often used to describe the head scarf or modest dress worn by women, who are required to cover everything (except face and hands) in the sight of anyone other than the immediate family. Any kind of veil - it could be a curtain, a facial veil, etc. It describes the self-covering of the body for the purposes of modesty and dignity; broadly, a prescribed system of attitudes and behaviour regarding modesty and dignity. The facial Hijab is divided into two types:
1. Niqab = full facial covering.
2. Khimar = partial facial covering, i.e. it covers the face, but leaves the eyes exposed. It is said that the Universe is what veils the Creator from the creation. If you find the veil awe-inspiring, how much more awe-ins piring is the One behind the veil! (See abayah, al-amira, burnuk, burqa, chador, jilbab, khimar, milfeh, niqab, purdah, shayla)

Hijaz The region along the western seaboard of Arabia, in which Makka, Medina, Jeddah and Ta'if are situated.

Hijrah means Departure, exit, emigration. Migration in the path of Allah. The Hijrah refers to the Prophet's migration from Mecca to Madinah. This journey took place in the twelfth year of his mission (622 C.E.). This is the beginning of the Muslim calendar. The word hijrah means to leave a place to seek sancturary or freedom from persecution or freedom of religion or any other purpose. Hijrah can also mean to leave a bad way of life for a good or more righteous way.

Hijree Pertaining to the hijrah.

Hijri Name of the Islamic lunar calendar. It took its name from the early Muslims who migrated from Makkah to Madinah, and commences from the date of the Prophet Muhammad's Hijra, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which he made with Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, in 622AC. The months of the Islamic calendar are:
1. Muharram.
2. Safar.
3. Rabi'i al-Awal.
4. Rabi'i al-Akhira.
5. Jumada al-Awal.
6. Jumada al-Akhira.
7. Rajab.
8. Sha'ban.
9. Ramadan.
10. Shawal.
11. Dhul Qi'da.
12. Dhul Hijjah

Hikmah  Literally this means "wisdom" and refers to the highest possible level of understanding attainable by a Muslim. In particular, it refers to the illuminative, mystical sort of wisdom which a Gnostic or Sufi might accomplish.

Himā wilderness reserve, protected forest, grazing commons, important to khalifa

Hira The name of a place near Makkah, where the Prophet Muhammad pbuh went for solitude and worship. It was there that he received the first revelation of the Qur'an.

Hizb Party. Allah Ta'ala divides all the parties into two groups:
1- "Hizb Allah" (the Party of Allah ) and
2- "Hizbal-Shaitan" (the Party of Satan).

Hizb one half of a juz', or roughly 1/60th of the Qur'an

Hooriyat Plural of Hooriah. See Hooriyah.

Hooriyah (Houri/ Houriah. Plur Hooriyat) A female virgin created by Allah Ta'ala, but not a descendant of Adam, peace be on him. She is created in Jannah (Paradise)and is the perfect companion of man in the Akhira (Hereafter). Her beauty is insurpassable and unimaginable. She has intensely black irises and the whites of her eyes are pure white.

Hubal the chief of the minor deities, was an image of a man, and was aid to have been originally brought to Arabia from Syria. It was one of the so many false gods of Arabs housed in the Kabah.
Hudā guidance

Hudaibiya (Al) A famous plain ten miles from Makkah on the way to Jeddah. Site of the peace pact between the Muslims and the pagan Quraish in the year 6AH. This treaty paved the way for the spread of Islam. Surat al-Fath (Surah 48 of the Qur'an) cmmemorates this victorious event. Allah Ta'ala called it "Fathan Mubeena" (a Manifest Victory). See Qur’an, AI-Fath 48/1-4.

Hudna Truce. Cease-fire (often temporary)

Hudud (Hudood sing hadd) the limits ordained by Allah. This includes the punishment for crimes. Literally, limits; the specific punishments assigned by the Qur'an and the Sunnah for particular crimes - intoxication, theft, rebellion, adultery and fornication, false accusation of adultery, and apostasy. These crimes involve transgressing the limits of acceptable behavior.

Hujjaj Pilgrims. Persons who have been on pilgrimage to Makkah during the Hajj season in the month of Dhul Hijjah. Singular: Haj = a male pilgrim, Hajah = a female pilgrim.

Hujjeeyah Producing the necessary proof or authority to validate a rule or concept.

Hukm The closest equivalent in the English language is "verdict". It usually applies to a judgement on legal issues,especially with regard to religious matters. Literally judgement, decision, 6/57 sometimes gives the meaning of wisdom, discretion, knowledge and the power to see things in their true perspective 26/83.

Hums The Quraish tribe, together with their offspring and allies, were called "Hums". The word was meant to be taken as meaning "strictness and enthusiasm", because they thought themselves to be Allah's people, thus regarding themselves as being superior to others.

Hunain Valley on the road from Makkah to Taif. Site of a famous battle that took place immediately after the conquest of Makkah in 8AH, between the Muslim army consisting of about 10,000-2,000 men and the combined forces of the Hawazin and Thaqeef which amounted to 4,000 men. After a surprise attack and a near defeat, the Muslims managed to completely crush the enemy. See Qur' an, At-Taubah 9/24-25.

Hutama The seventh and deepest level of the Nar (Hellfire). This is where the religious hypocrites will spend eternity. The worst of Allah's creation are the Munafiqeen (hypocrites), whether they be mankind or Jinn, because they 'accept' Allah and His Messenger with their tongues, but deny this 'acceptance' by their actions. See Jahanam.


Ibadah (Ibadaah) All acts of worship. Any permissible action performed with the intention to obey Allah. Acts of worship and adoration in utmost submission and obedience and with utmost love to Allah Ta'ala. In other words, a term that indicates all that pleases Allah, including sayings and actions of the heart or limbs. Love, fear, reverence, desire (hope), trust and sincerity are some forms of worship from within the heart. Prayers, attending to someone's needs, invocation, supplication and sacrifices are some forms of worship of the limbs. Ibadah is to worship Allah as He wishes to be worshipped. See Arkan .

`Ibaarat al Nass Explicit meaning of a given text which is borne out by its words

Iblis The Jinn who disobeyed Allah Ta'ala and was expelled from His mercy. It was Iblis who tempted Adam and his wife Hawwa (Eve), peace be on them, to approach the forbidden tree. He is also known as Shaitan (Satan). See Shaitan. See Qur' an, Al-Baqara 2/30-39.

Id (eid) Recurring happiness. A religious holiday; a feast for thanking Allah and celebrating a happy occasion.

Id Mubarak (eid mubarak, eid mubaraak) Id blessings ! Greeting exchanged during Islamic celebrations.

Id-ul-Adha Celebration of the sacrifice, commemorating the Prophet Ibrahim's willingness to sacrifice his son Ishma'il for Allah (peace be upon them). Also known as Id-ul-Kabir - the Greater Id - and Qurban Bayram (Turkish) - feast of sacrifice.

Id-ul-Fitr Celebration of breaking the fast on the day after Ramadan ends, which is also the first day of Shawal, the tenth Islamic month. Also known as Id-ul-Saghir - the Lesser Id - and Sheker Bayram (Turkish) - sugar feast.

I'dad Al-'oda  "preparation for battle" according to Qur'an

Iddat ('Iddat) A limited period of waiting after divorce and before re-marriage prescribed by Islamic law, so as to avoid any confusion regarding the paternity of any child born after the new marriage. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/231-235, At-Talaq 65/4-7.

Idkhir (Adhkhar) A special type of pleasantly scented grass found in the Hijaz area of Arabia.

Ifrad (Hajj al) "Single Hajj". Performing Hajj without doing Umra. See Hajj

Ifreet ('Ifreet plur 'Afareet) An evil Jinn. He is large, powerful and very crafty. See Qur' an, An-Naml 27/39.

Iftar Breaking of the fast immediately after sunset. Iftar takes place at Maghreb as soon as the Adhan is called.

Ihram The state or condition entered into to perform either Hajj or Umrah. During this period, many normally permitted actions are placed out of bounds to Muslims. Also, the name of the two plain white unsewn cloths worn by male pilgrims to indicate the brotherhood, equality and purity of the pilgrim. For, woman, the dress of Ihram consists of their normal modest clothing.
1- When one assumes such a state one must state mentally and orally that he or she is assuming such a state for the purpose of Umra or Hajj. Then one must recite the Talbiya. See Talbiya
2   Dress:
o   Men. It consists of two pieces of unstitched cloth:
(i) Rida - worn around the upper part of the body.
(ii) Izar - worn below the waist.
o   Women. Any full length dress which covers the entire body except for the hands and face, and is inconspicuous, i.e. it does not attract attention in any way whatsoever (tight, colourful, etc.).
3-   Behaviour: Both men and women are not permitted to trim their hair or nails, wear perfume, harm or kill any living thing, including insects, or damage any plant or tree. They should avoid argument and loss of temper. Sexual intercourse between spouses is also not permitted.

Ihsan Highest level of obedience in worship, i.e. to be aware of and sincere to Allah Ta'ala and to be eager to do all good deeds. It is to worship Allah as if you see Him, knowing that, although you do not see Him, Allah sees you.

Ijaz miracle, the character of the Qur'an in both form and content.

Ijazah a certificate authorizing one to transmit a subject or text of Islamic knowledge

Ijma General consensus of scholars, expressed or tacit, on matters of law and practice.

Ijtihad (Ijtehad,Ijtihaad,Ijtehaad) Exerting the sum total of one's ability attempting to uncover Allah's rulings on issues from their sources (Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijma', etc.). Sometimes divided into complete ijtihad (the ability of one to independently arrive at Allah's rulings in all areas of fiqh) and partial ijtihad (the ability of one to do so only in certain areas of fiqh in which they have exerted such efforts). See Qiyaas .

Ikraam honor, hospitality, generosity - Dhul jalaali wal ikraam is one of the 99 names of Allah.

1.   "The Complete Faith". Surah 112 of the Qur' an.
2.   Sincerity of the heart in worship and purity of intention. For any worship to be accepted by Allah it must be entirely for His sake, and not for other-than-Him.

Ikhtilaaf Difference of opinion; disagreement; dispute; controversy.

Ilāh deity, a god; including fake gods worshiped by polytheists.

Ilaa The oath taken by a husband that he will not have sexual relations with his wife for a certain period of time. If this continues for longer than four months, then it is considered a divorce.

Ilhad Atheism. Derives from Ilhah. Ilhad means deviation. It includes:
1. Comparing Allah to anything, or any of His Attributes to those of His Creation.
2. Denying any of Allah's Attributes or altering their true meaning.
3. Using Allah's Names to describe anything in His Creation.
4. To name Him with a name with which He has not named Himself. E.g. "Father".
5. To attribute any deficiencies to Him. The person who practises Ilhad is called Mulhid. See Mulhid .

`Illah: (plur`ilal) Effective cause or ratio legis of a particular ruling.

Illyoun A place in Jannah (Paradise). Literally means "high places", but its exact nature is known only to Allah Ta'ala. All we know about it is that it is where the record of the righteous is kept. In contrast, the record of the evil-doers is kept in Sijjin. See Qur'an, Al-Mutafifeen 83/18-21.

Ilm ('Ilm) Knowledge.

Ilmu-'llah Knowledge of Allah Ta 'ala. No created being has any knowledge except what Allah permits him to know. Therefore, all that man possesses is a gift from Allah, but most of mankind and the Jinn are unthankful. However much you know, you only know a little.

Imam (Imaam,Emaam,Emam plur A'immah) is a religious leader. Any person who leads a congregational prayer is called an Imam. A religious leader who also leads his community in the political affairs may be called an Imam, an Amir, or a Caliph. However, an Imam is not infallible. He is responsible for his mistakes to all the members of the community and above all he is responsible to Almighty Allah.

Imamah Office and function of an Imam.

Imamul mursaleen The leader of all the messengers. One of the titles of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them.

Iman (Imaan, Emaan) faith and trust in Allah. Having faith and believing in:
1. Allah Ta'ala. To affirm with the tongue, believe in the heart and confirm through action the following:
o His Existence.
o His Lordship.
o His Worship.
o His Names and Attributes.
2. Belief in His angels.
3. Belief in His revealed Books.
4. Belief in His messengers, without making any distinction between them.
5. Belief in the Hour and the Judgement and the Fire and the Garden.
6. Belief in the Divine decrees of Allah Ta'ala, both the good and the evil. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/285. See Mursaleen.

Imlas An abortion caused by being beaten over the abdomen.

Imran See Aali 'imran .

Imsaak Start of the fasting time. Imsaak begins when the first light of dawn becomes visible, at Fajr when the Adhan is called.

Infāq the habitual inclination to give rather than take in life; the basis for charity.

Injil the revelations that were sent down during the time of Prophet Isa (Jesus). It is refered to as the New Testament. Gospel. This is mistakenly understood, by some, to be the New Testament that the Nasara (Christians) have today. The Ingeel that is referred to in the Qur'an is the original scripture that was revealed to the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him, by Allah through the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him, and not the New Testament which was written by Matthew.

Ins wal Jinn Mankind and Jinn. See jinn.

Insan "Human". Another name for Ad-Dahr. Surah 76 of the Qur'an.

Inna lillahi wa inna ilahi raji'un (Inna lillahi wa inna ilahi rajioon) When a Muslim is struck with a calamity, when he loses one of his loved ones, or when he has gone bankrupt, he should be patient and say this statement, the meaning of which is: "We are from Allah and to whom we are returning." Muslims believe that Allah is the One who gives and it is He takes away. He is testing us. Hence, a Muslim submits himself to Allah. He is grateful and thankful to Allah for whatever he gets. On the other hand, he is patient and says this expression in times of turmoil and calamity.

In sha' allah (Insha Allah, Inshaa Allah, Insha Alla, In sha' Alla) When a person wishes to plan for the future, when he promises, when he makes resolutions, and when he makes a pledge, he makes them with permission and the will of Allah. For this reason, a Muslim uses the Qur'anic instructions by saying "In Sha ' Allah." The meaning of this statement is: "If Allah wills." Muslims are to strive hard and to put their trusts with Allah. They leave the results in the hands of Allah.

Iqamah (Iqaamah) is an Arabic word that refers to the second call for the prayer which follows the first call (Adhan). Iqamah means that the prayer is ready to start. It is to be recited in Arabic before every obligatory prayer. It is composed of specific words and phrases very closely related to the Adhan.

Iqamat as-salat Performing the Salat in a perfect manner. This is understood by most Muslims as having only one meaning, but it has two:
1. Performing the prayer in exactly the same manner as the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray. see Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 737, boook 12, Vol.1.
2. Establishing the prayer every person in a Muslim society who is seven years old or more must pray - women in their houses and men in the Masajid (mosques). Every head, be he head of the family or chief of the town, will be held responsible for the missed Fard prayers of those under him, as well as his own.

Iqraa "Read". Another name for Suratul al-'Alaq. Surah 96 of the Qur'an.

Iraad A major act of Kufr. Knowingly turning away from and rejecting or covering up the Divine Truth. See kufr.

Iram Capital city of the ancient people of 'Ad in the Yemen. It was famous for its lofty pillars. Some scholars say Iram was a hero of the people of 'Ad who built a lofty statue of him. See Qur'an, AL-Fajr 89/6-8.

Irtidad  apostasy (see murtadd.)

Isha (Ishaa Salat-ul-Isha) the obligatory salaah, prayer, after sunset later in the evening.

Ishtimaal as-samaa' Wearing of clothes in two ways:
1. Covering one shoulder and leaving the other bare.
2. Wrapping oneself (while sitting) in such a way that one's garments do not entirely hide the private pans.

Islam is an Arabic word the root of which is Silm and Salam. It means among others: peace, greeting, salutation, obedience, loyalty, allegiance, and submission to the will of the Creator of the Universe. Islam is the last and final religion to all mankind and to all generations irrespective of color, race, nationality, ethnic background, language, or social position. The religion of Islam is not to be confused with Mohammedanism. The latter is misnomer to Islam. Muslims do not accept this name as it gives wrong information about Islam and Muslims.
• Literally means "submission to the will of Allah". It is for this reason that Allah Himself names His life transaction "al-Islam" and describes all the followers of this way of life, in every age, as "Muslims".
• The life transaction of Allah has five pillars, all of which must be strictly adhered to in word, deed and sincere belief. The five pillars of Islam are as follows:
1. Shahadatain. Bearing witness. All Muslims must believe in and utter the Shahadatain.
 First Shahada : Ash-hadu an la illaha illa l'lah. (I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.)
 Second Shahada: Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah. (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.)
2. Salat. Prayers. To do all the five compulsory daily prayers regularly in the exact manner as was practised by the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
3. Seeaam. Fasting. Also spelled as Saum. To fast in the month of Ramadan.
4. Zakat. Wealth tax. To pay 2.5% of one's yearly savings above a certain amount to the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at least) the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold at the time when the annual Zakat payment is due. Zakat is also due on other things such as silver, animals, crops, etc. For a full explanation on Zakat refer to the relevant books written on the subject.
5. Hajj. Pilgrimage. To perform the pilgrimage to the Holy City of Makkah at least once in one's lifetime (if one is able to afford it). See Qur' an, Al-Maida 5/3.

Isnad Chain of transmission of each Hadith.

Isra (Al) "The Night Journey". Another name for Bani Israel. Surah 17 of the Qur'an.

Istighfar to seek Allah's forgiveness. It is something that must be done continuously in a Muslims life.

Istihada  vaginal bleeding except Haid and Nifas

Istikhara Asking Allah the Almighty to guide one to the right decision and action regarding a particular problem. The Istikhara Salat consists of two Rak'as. A special invocation is said. See Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 263, Book 2, Vol.2.

Istihsaan Juristic preference - the abandonment of one legal ruling for another which is considered better or more appropriate to a given circumstance.

Istinbaat Inference. Deducing a somewhat hidden meaning from a given text. The process of extracting laws.

Istinja Cleaning the private parts after urinating or passing stool, preferably using water.

Istishaab Presumption of continuity, or presuming continuation of the status quo ante. For example,  istishaab requires that once a contract of sale, or of marriage, is concluded it is presumed to remain in force until there is a change established by evidence.

Istislah public interest - a source of Islamic Law.

Istish'hād martyrdom.

Istisqa Invoking Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala for rain in the time of a drought. The Istisqa Salat consists of two Rak'as. See Bukhari, Hadith 119, Book 17, Vol.2

Itaqu The faithful who fear Allah.

Ithm (Ithim) denotes negligence, dereliction of duty and sin. Negative reward for bad deeds that is tallied on qiyamah (judgment day.) Opposite of thawab (reward).

Ittibaa (Tawheed Al)
1. Unity in following the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. To believe in and recite the words "Ashadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah" (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah) and to follow the way of the Prophet Muhammad, as much as one is able, in life and worship.
2. Full belief in any matter proven to be authentic about the Prophet Muhammad.
3. Obedience and following.
4. To give priority to the Sunnah above any other way of life. See Tawheed.

Ittihad "identity" or "union," the claim of experience of personal union with Allah as felt by a Sufi mystic which is kufr.

Itiqaf ('Itikaf) Being secluded in a Masjid while fasting for the sole purpose of worshipping Allah. The person who is in the state of 'Itikaf must not leave the Masjid unless it is absolutely necessary, e.g. answering the call of nature or to alleviate the problems and burdens of a fellow Muslim. There are two types of 'Itikaf:
•  Fard. Compulsory when one promises Allah to do'Itikaf if Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala answers his invocation, e.g. "I promise to do 'Itikaf for seven days if my son is cured." If Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala answers his dua'a, then the 'Itikaf of seven days becomes a Fard.
•  Sunnah. Voluntary practice. Following the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and doing the 'Itikaf during the last ten days of Ramadan. See Bukhari, Hadith 242, Book 33, Vol.3.

Itmām al-hujjah clarification of truth in its ultimate form.

Izar A cloth worn (by men) below the waist.


Ja'ala "He made". Has a different meaning to "Khalaqa ,see Khaliq . Ja'ala implies "turn into", for example:
1. "Who has made the earth your couch..." (Surah Al-Baqara 2/22).
2. "Make me a good Muslim and at death count me amongst the believers."

Jadal Dialectics, wrangling, disputation.

Jamaa`ah Group, congregation, community.

Jaa'iz That which is allowed or permissible. As a rule, everything that is not prohibited is allowed.

Jahannam means Hell, the punishment for those who are judged to be evil. Most commonly understood to mean Hell. In fact, it is one of the levels of Hell. There are seven levels of Hellfire:
1. Jaheem - the shallowest level of Hell. It is reserved for those who believed in Allah and His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but who ignored His commands.
2. Jahanam - a deeper level where the idol-worshippers are to be sent on the Day of Judgement.
3. Sa'ir - is reserved for the worshippers of fire.
4. Saqar - this is where those who did not believe in Allah will be sent on the Day of Judgement.
5. Ladha - will be the home of the Jews.
6. Hawiyah - will be the abode of the Christians.
7. Hutama - the deepest level of Hellfire. This is where the religious hypocrites will spend eternity. The worst of Allah's creation are the Munafiqeen (Hypocrites), whether they be mankind or Jinn, for they outwardly appear to accept, but inwardly reject, Allah and His Messenger.

Jaheem The shallowest level of the Nar. It is reserved for those who believed in Allah and His Messenger Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but who ignored His commands. See Jahanam.

Jahiliyyah means ignorant. Jahiliyyah refers to the pre-Islamic era that existed in Arabia. It is a combination of views, ideas, and practices that totally defy and reject the guidance sent down by God through His Prophets. This involves relying on what is other than the truth. This is why the age prior to the advent of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is called Jahiliyah. Many people believed, for example, in Allah, but tried to attain His pleasure through worshipping another medium such as a stone, fire, man, wood, animal, etc., rather than following His guidance which had been revealed to the earlier messengers. The age of Jahiliyah 'ended' when the Final Revelation, the Holy Qur'an, was revealed to mankind and the Jinn. However, it still exists wherever this Last Message from God has not reached. Any deviation from the True Path is no longer considered as Jahiliyah, but as Kufr, for the truth has been distinguished from falsehood. Ayyam al-Jahiliyah, or 'The Days of Ignorance' in the books of history, indicate the period before the Prophethood of Muhammad when the people in Arabia forgot the teachings of their Prophets and indulged in stupid practices.

Jahl ignorance, arrogance.

Jahri Loud recitation of the Holy Qur'an during Salaat.

Jalbab this is a long loose fitting garment worn by the Arabs.

Jalut Goliath. A giant and a commander who led a large army against a small, but very dedicated army under Talut (Saul). Dawood (David), peace be on him, still a young boy then, killed Jalut, thus causing a major defeat to the enemies of Allah. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/249-252.

Jalsa  sitting.

Jam Al-Muzdalifa

Jamaha To be uncontrollable.

Jame' Joining two Fard (compulsory) prayers, by praying one immediately after the other, in one space of time. Under certain circumstances (for example, when a person is travelling), it is permitted to join the Fard (compulsory) prayers together:
1. The Fajr prayer (the first compulsory prayer of the day) is not combined with any other prayer.
2. The Duhr and 'Asr prayers (the second and third compulsory prayers of the day) may, under certain circumstances, be combined.
3. The Maghreb and Isha prayers (the fourth and fifth compulsory prayers of the day) may also, under certain circumstances, be combined.
4. Call only one Adhan, but two Iqamat as-Salat (one for each Salat).
5. The Duhr, 'Asr and Isha prayers are reduced from four to two Rak' at each when doing travelling prayers during a journey which is longer than 48 miles. This reduction does not occur if the prayers are joined due to extremely bad weather.

Jame' comes in two forms:
1. Jame' Taqdeem - early combination:
o Praying the Duhr and 'Asr prayers during the time of Duhr. In this case, the Duhr Salat is performed first,then the 'Asr Salat.
o Praying the Maghreb and Isha prayers during the time of Maghreb. In this case, the Maghreb Salat is performed first, then the Isha Salat.
2. Jame' Takheer - delayed combination:
o Praying the Duhr and 'Asr prayers during the time of 'Asr. The Duhr Salat is performed first, then the 'Asr Salat.
o Praying the Maghreb and Isha prayers during the time of Isha. The Maghreb Salat is performed first, then the Isha Salat.

Jāmi‘ah "gathering"; i.e. a university, a mosque, or more generally, a community or association.

Jamra (plur Jimar) White hot coal. The term used to describe the three pillars built of stone at Mina.

Jamrat al 'aqaba One of the three stone pillars at Mina. One of the rites of Hajj is to throw pebbles at these stone pillars, which represent Shaitan (Satan).

Janaza funeral (prayer).

Jannah means Paradise, the reward for those who are judged to be good. A created abode in the Hereafter for those who believe in the Unity of Allah and in all His Prophets and Messengers, and who follow their way of life. See Mursaleen. Jannah has eight gates around it and each of these eight gates has eleven doors. The names of the eight gates are:
1. Bab al-Iman.
2. Bab al-Jihad.
3. Bab al-Kadhemean al-Gaidh.
4. Bab ar-Raiyan.
5. Bab ar-Radiyeen.
6. Bab as-Sadaqa.
7. Bab at-Taubah.
8. Bab as-Salat.
Jannah has not been guaranteed to any human being or Jinn (with the exception of the messengers of Allah) before their deaths, other than the following ten men (and other sahaba who were mentioned in the ahadith):
1. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq.
2. Umar ibn al-Khattab.
3. Uthman ibn 'Affan.
4. Ali ibn Abi Talib.
5. Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqas.
6. Abu Ubaida 'Amer ibn al-Jarrah.
7. Al-Zubair ibn al-'Awam.
8. Talha ibn Ubaidu'llah.
9. Abdar-Rahman ibn 'Auf.
10. Sa'is ibn Zaid.
May Allah be pleased with all of them.

Janaba The state of a person after sexual discharge, whether intentional or otherwise. A person may not perform Salat or recite or touch the Holy Qur'an until he performs Ghusl or Tayammum. See Ghusl.

Jazakallahu khayran (Jazakallahu khaira; Jazakallah khair; Jazakalluhu khair) This is a statement of thanks and appreciation to be said to the person who does a favor. Instead of saying "thanks" (Shukran), the Islamic statement of thanks is to say this phrase. Its meaning is: " May Allah reward you for the good." It is understood that human beings can't repay one another enough. Hence, it is better to request Almighty Allah to reward the person who did a favor and to give him the best.

Jibril Gabriel. The angel who delivered Allah's messages to His Prophets. Alo called Rooh al-Qudus, "The Holy Spirit". His duty was to reveal the Word of Allah Ta'ala to His Anbiaa (Prophets). He is now sent to help the very religious against the temptations of Shaitan (Satan) at the time of death. His epithet is Roohul Amin (The Spirit of Truth) (Ash-Shu'ara 26/193). The AI-Amin is Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/97-98, At-Takwir 81/19-21. See Mursaleen

Jibt signifies a thing devoid of any true basis and dereft of  usefulness. In Islamic terminology the various forms of sorcery, divination and soothsaying, in short all superstitions, are called jibt.

Jihad (Jihaad) It is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive for a better way of life. The nouns are Juhd, Mujahid, Jihad, and Ijtihad. The other meanings are: endeavor, strain, exertion, effort, diligence, fighting to defend one's life, land, and religion. Personal individual struggle against evil in the way of Allah. It can also be collective defense of the Muslim community. Jihad is not a defensive war only, but a war against any unjust regime. If such a regime exists, a war is to be waged against the leaders, but not against the people of that country. People should be freed from the unjust regimes and influences so that they can freely choose to believe in Allah.

1. One of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See Jannah.
2. A holy war in the cause of Allah and His commands. Jihad takes many forms, amongst which are:
• Jihad an-Nafs - fighting against one's own evil waits and trying one's utmost to be a better person in the sight of Allah.
• Jihad al Akbar - physically fighting against the enemies of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.

Jihād al talab Offensive jihad.

Jihād al daf’a   Defensive jihad.

Jilbāb (pl. jalabib) a long, flowing, baggy garment worn by some to fulfill the mandates of sartorial hijab. Jilbāb is incumbent upon Muslim women to wear this as a sign of modesty. (See abaya. burka, chador)

Jimar   Plural of Jamra. See Jamra and Jamarat al 'aqaba.

Jinn (Jin; Ginn) These are spiritual beings that inhabit the world and are required to follow the orders of Allah and are accountable for their deeds. They can be good or bad, just like people. The word Jinn in Arabic means hidden, which indicates that they are invisible creatures. They were created by Allah from fire. A race of created beings that are made out of smokeless fire. They are like the Ins (human race) in many ways:
1. They are born, have children and die. They also have friends and family.
2. There are Muslims and Kuffar amongst them.
3. They eat food, but their food consists mainly of bones and stool.
They differ from us in many ways too:
1. Their lifespan is much longer than ours.
2. They can see us and sometimes are able to dwell within us.
3. They need no form of transport.
4. They need no housing. The Muslims amongst them like to live in the Masajid and pray, but the unbelievers tend to live in the bathrooms of non-religious Ins (human beings). The best way to make sure that they do not intermix with us (i.e. enter our bodies or houses or eat food with us) is to remember Allah constantly and to read the Qur'an as much as possible. Surah 72 of the Qur'an.

Jizyah a tax paid by non-Muslims living in a Muslim State. Since the non-Muslims are exempt from military service and taxes imposed on Muslims, they must pay this tax to compensate. It guarentees them security and protection. If the State cannot protect those who paid jizyah, then the amount they paid is returned to them. Jizyah symbolizes the submission of the unbelievers to the suzerainty of Islam.

Judiye Place where the Ark of the Prophet Nooh (Noah), peace be on him, came to rest. Jabal (Mount) Judiye is in the Turkish district of Bothan, which is situated near the frontiers of Turkey, Syria and Iraq. See Qur'an, Houd 11/44.

Juhfa (Al) The place to the north-west of Makka where the people of Shaam put on their Ihram when intending to go on Hajj. See Miqat.

Juhud  To deny. Jaahid (the denier). Disbelief out of rejection. When there comes to them that which they [should] have recognized, they refuse to believe in (kafaru) it. 2/89 Accordingly, juhud includes rejection (kufr at-taktheeb) and resistance (kufr al-‘inaad)

Jumu'ah (Salat-ul-Jumu'ah) The weekly communal salah, and attendance at the khutbah performed shortly after midday on Fridays which is prayed instead of Dhur. Surah 62 of the Qur'an.

Jumada al akhira The sixth month of the Islamic calendar. See Hijri

Junub A person in the state of Janaba means to be in a state of  ceremonial impurity or defilement. A male becomes junub on having sexual intercourse or simply on the emission of semen in sleep or otherwise. A female also becomes junub as a result of  sexual intercourse as well as when she is menstruating or having postnatal bleeding. These are the general causes of janaba, which is also referred to in the books of jurisprudence as hadath akbar. A full bath is required for a junub to receive purification or tahara, without which a man or woman is not allowed to touch or read the Qur'an, enter the mosque or offer the prayers. In the absence of water, however, one is allowed to resort to tayammum. Tayammum substitutes for both a full bath (ghusl) and ablution (wudu). See Janaba.

Juz (Plur Ajza) A part. The Qur'an is divided into thiny parts. A thirtieth part of the Qur'an.

Jwej wa Majwej   Cog and Magog. Two evil empires. They are mentioned in the Holy Qur'an and Ahadeeth (Bukhari and Muslim) when mentioning some of the scenes just before the final hour. See Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Fitan wa Isha rat as-Say'ah. See Qur' an, Al-Anbiyaa 21/96.


KAW See Karrama Allahu wajhu

Ka'bah (Kabah) the first house of worship built for mankind. It was originally built by Adam and later on reconstructed by Abraham and Isma'il. It is a cubed shaped structure based in the city of Mecca to which all Muslims turn to in their five daily paryers. Muslims, however, do not worship it, nor pray to it. Muslims only pray to Almighty Allah.

Ka'ba Al Yamaniyah Also known as Dhi aI-Khalasa. A place where pagan idols used to be worshipped in Yemen in the pre-Islamic time of ignorance.

Kaamil Perfectly complete. There is nothing perfectly complete except Allah Ta'ala.

Kabair Major sins. Such sins as Shirk (see Shirk), Qatl (murder), Zinah (fornication and adultery), the taking of Riba (usury), Sirq (theft), etc.

Kaffara An expiatory gift. The prescribed way of making amends for wrong actions, particularly missed obligatory actions. For example, if a person swears to do something in the Name of Allah, but later finds out that he is not in a position to keep that pledge, then he must pay a Kaffara. Kaffara is paid in various ways, usually by freeing a slave, feeding the hungry, or fasting for a specified number of days. Contrast with Fidya (compensation). See Fidya

Kafir (Plur Kāfirūn) a person who refuses to submit himself to Allah (God), a disbeliever in Allah. from the word kafara - "to hide." Those who deliberately hide the truth; unbelievers, truth-concealers; one who is ungrateful.

Kafura Literally means camphor. It is a special heavenly perfume that will be mixed with non-intoxicating, pure wine and be given to the righteous in the Akhira (Hereafter). See Qur'an, Al-Insan 76/5.

Kalalah according to some scholars refers to those who die leaving neither issue nor father nor grandfather. According to others it refers to those who die without issue (regardless of whether they are succeeded by father or grandfather).

Kalam (Kalaam) Talk or speech as in "kalamu Allah"; has also been used through the ages to mean logic or philosophy. Literally, `words' or `speech,' and referring to oration. The name applied to the discipline of philosophy and theology concerned specifically with the nature of faith, determinism and freedom, and the nature of the divine attributes.

Kalimatul tayibah The Pure Word, i.e. the assertion that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. "La illaha illa'llah."

Kalimatu'llah Statements of Allah Ta'ala. Words of Allah. See Roohu'llah.

Karrama'llahu wajhu Statements of Allah Ta'ala. Words of Allah. See Roohu'llah.Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her, the second of the earliest Muslims, never having had any connection with other religions.

Kasaba Literally means to earn. This does not only mean the earning of a livelihood, but rather the spiritual reaping of the consequences of one's deeds, whether they he good or evil. See Qur'an, Luqman 31/34.

Kasafa (Khasafa) Means "eclipsed" in regard to the sun.

Katheb Lie, particularly one involving denial of Allah and His messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them peace.

Kawthar (Al)
1. "The fount of Kawthar". A sacred fount in Jannah (paradise). It is the source of all the four rivers of Paradise, and feeds the Hawd of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Surah 108 of the Qur'an.
2. The Hawd which is filled by Al-Kawthar is at the end of the Siratul Mustaqeem. It is a gift from Allah to the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is to quench the thirst of the true believers.

Khabar al Waahid A solitary hadeeth reported by a single person from the Prophet. Also called hadeeth Aahaad. Khabar means news or report.

Khafy (shirk al) The hidden Shirk. Being dissatisfied with what Allah has ordained for a particular person. Hidden Shirk is to inwardly worship any thing or anyone other than Allah, or to inwardly associate something or someone as a partner with Him, especially one's self. See Shirk.

Khaibar A famous town north of Madinah. It was the place where a great battle took place between the Muslims and the Jews in 1OAH. The Muslim victory at Khaibar destroyed Jewish influence in the Arabian peninsular for many centuries, until the introduction of the modern Jewish banking system throughout the world. See Qur' an, Al-A hzab 33/27.

Khaif Name of a Masjid (mosque) in Madinah.

Khairul ummah The best nation amongst all nations in the sight of Allah Ta'ala, i.e. Al-Ummal Islamiah (the Muslim nation).

Khaleel Highest form of friendshp. The love that is mixed with one's own soul. The Prophet Muhammad and the Prophet Ibrahim, may Allah bless them and grant them peace, were 'Khaleelu'llah', the intimate friends of Allah. They loved people for Allah, but their greatest love was only Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself.

Khaleelu'llah The Prophet Muhammad and the Prophet Ibrahim, may Allah bless them and grant them peace, the intimate friends of Allah. They loved people for Allah, but their greatest love was only Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself.

Khalideen To abide for ever. The good will abide in the Jannab (Paradise) and the evil will abide in the Nar (Hellfire) forever. "Khalideena feeha abada". (They will abide in there for ever.) The word "Aba da" also means "for ever". Allah Ta'ala uses "Abada" to emphasize "for ever", reminding us that eternity is endless.

Khalifah (Khalifaah; Halifaah; Khaleefah; Khaleefa Plur Khulafaa) Successor; inheritor; custodian; vice-regent. The word Khalifah refers to the successor or representative of Prophet Muhammad (saas) or to one of his successors. This person acts as the head of state for the Muslim Ummah. Another title for the Khalifah (English Caliph) is Amir Al-Mu'mineen which means 'the leaders of the believers'. Caliph, more generally, one performing the duties of khilafa.
Derives from the word Khalafa,
Yakhlufu = come after.
Khulafa = the ones who succeed others, in the sense of standing in as a representative for someone else.
Thus Khalifa = viceregent, the representative of Allah. Khalifa has two main meanings:
1. General: It refers to mankind, particularly the believers. The human being is considered the Khalifah (representative) of Allah on earth according to Allah. Every Muslim is a Khalifa and should carry the banner of Islam high and strive to establish the Deen of Islam until Allah's Word is uppermost on the earth. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/30.
2. Specific: A Muslim ruler. There were four Al-Khulafaa ar-Rashideen, "the rightly-guided Khulafaa":
o   AbuBakras-Siddiq- 11-13AH.
o   Umar ibn al-Khattab - 13-23AH.
o   Uthman ibn 'Affan - 24-36AH.
o   Ah ibn Abi Talib- 36-4OAH.

Khalq Creation - the act of measuring; determining, estimating and calculating. Khalq is the noun form of the verb khalaqa (see bara, sawwara).

Khaliq (Al) "Al-Khaliq" The Creator. Allah. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. Some useful words regarding creation:
1.   Khalaqa - "He created".
2.   Khalq - "Creation
3.   Makhlooq - "Created".
4.   Khalaaq - "Creator" in the sense of "Originator".

Khamar Intoxicant: wine. Anything that is fermented and causes a state of drunkenness when consumed. Khamr is prohibited by Allah Ta'ala in the strongest term possible: "Ijtanibou" - "Leave it!" It is a higher level of prohibition than forbidding it because it is Haram. Haram = a direct prohibition ordered by Allah Ta'ala. Ijtanibou = a degree more serious than Haram. It is not only Haram, but also a direct command not to approach or be near it for any reason whatsoever. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/29, Al-Ma' idah 5/93.

Khandaq means ditch. A famous battle between the early Muslims and the pagans in which the Muslims built a Khandaq (trench) on the unprotected side of the city of Al-Madinah al-Munawarah to prevent the advance of the Makkan unbelievers in 5AH. The enemy were halted by this unexpected tactic, and then driven away by awful weather, mutual distrust and low morale, without any major engagement having taken place. It was also called Ghazwatul-Ahzab (Battle of the Clans), because the Makkan idol-worshippers were assisted by the Jewish Tribes of Banu Nadhir, Banu Chatfan and Banu Asad. See Qur'an, An-Nur 24/55, Al-Ahzab 33/9-20.

Khatam anbiyaa The Seal of the Prophets. This is the title of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Allah Ta'ala sent many prophets, from Adam to Isa (Jesus), may the blessings and peace of Allah be on all of them, and then sent Muhammad as the last messenger to the Ins wal Jinn (mankind and the Jinn) with the final and complete relevation, the Qur'an. This is one of the reasons why Allah Ta'ala Himself decreed that it is He who will preserve and be the Guardian of the Qur'an. It is the only Holy Book today that has not been altered (not even a single letter has been altered!). Allah Ta'ala's promise is true! Has not the time come for those who reject to see the truth? Allah Ta'ala has sent an unlimited number of proofs to prove that the divine truth lies in the Qur’an and with the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is clear for those who wish to see them. And those who choose to reject them will have only themselves to blame. For another proof see Umm-me. Allah humma inni ballaght; Allah humma inni ballaght; Allah humma inni ballaght: O Allah, surely the message has been delivered; 0 Allah, surely the message has been delivered; 0 Allah, surely the message has been delivered.

Khatib orator, speaker.

Kharāj a land tax. Tax imposed on the revenue from land taken from non-muslims to ensure their equal rights under Islamic law.

Kharij Singular of khawarij. See Khawarij.

Khauf  Fear. Only fear of Allah is acceptable to Allah Ta'ala. Khauf is a general fear, e.g.:
1. Fearing the unknown.
2. Fear of failing.
3. Fear of losing wealth, etc.
Taqwa is the fear of something specific and its consequences:
• Fear of Allah and of His wrath. This is the mark of a true believer. This is a blessed Taqwa that will lead to Paradise.
• Fearing Shaitan or man for the evil they can do, without taking into consideration that Allah has power over them. This is a cursed Taqwa that will lead to Hellfire.
The opposite of Khauf is Raja (hope), hope for generosity and blessings from Allah Ta'ala.

Khaass The particular as opposed to the general (`aamm).

Khawarij (Sing Kharij) The people who dissented from Islam and created a false belief which was not part of the Qur'an or the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Seceders. Name given to a group of the followers of the khaleefah `Alee who opposed his decision to agree to arbitration in the conflict with Moo`aawiyah in 38 AH/659 AC. Later on, this group recognized as legitimate only the first two caliphs. Aboo Bakr and `Umar. Theologically, they considered the sinner as a kaafir, an outlaw or apostate, whom it is legitimate and religiously imperative to fight.

Kawlah bint tha'laba She is the woman who is referred to in the Surat al-Mujadalah Surah 58/1-6.

1. Store houses or places where things are stored.
2. Treasures or where treasures are kept. Singular: Makhzan.

Khilaaf  Controversy, dispute, discord.

Khilāfah Man's trusteeship and stewardship of Earth; Most basic theory of the Caliphate; Flora and fauna as sacred trust; Accountability to; God for harms to nature, failure to actively care and maintain. Three specific ways in which khalifa is manifested in Muslim practice are the creation of haram to protect water, hima to protect other species (including those useful to man), and by resisting infidel domination over Muslim lands, in jihad.

Khalīfāt Rashīdūn  four first caliphs, believed by most Muslims to be most righteous rulers in history

Khimār (plur khumur)  headcovering Qur'an 24/31. type of Hijab (veil) which covers the face, but leaves the eyes exposed, as opposed to the Niqab, which covers the entire face, including the eyes.

Khosoof Lunar eclipse. There is a special Eclipse Salat (prayer) which lasts as long as the eclipse itself.

Khul' A form of divorce. When a wife leaves her husband after giving him certain compensation, usually part or all of her dowry.

Khumra A small prayer mat, just large enough for hands and forehead.

Khums literally one-fifth. One-fifth of the spoils of war is earmarked for the struggle to exalt the Word of Allah and to help the orphans, the needy, the wayfarer and the Prophet's kinsmen. Since the Prophet (saw) devoted all his time to the cause of Islam, he was not in a position to earn his own living. Hence a part of khums was allocated for the maintenance of the Prophet (saw) as well as for his family and the relatives dependent upon him for financial support. See Al-Qur'an, Al-Anfaal 8/41.

Khushu' - humility, devotion, concentration (especially in prayer).

Kitāb book; The Qur'an is often referred to as "Al-Kitāb" (The Book).

Khutbah (Khuṭbah) a speech or sermon. It is sometimes used to refer to the sermon given during the Friday cogregational prayer. There are various types of sermon, e.g.:
1. Khutbatul Jum'a = the Friday sermon. This is given immediately before the Jum'a Salat (prayer).
2. Khuthatul Eid = the Eid sermon. This is given immediately after the Salat (prayer) of the two Eids.
3. Khutbatul Nikah = the marriage sermon. This is given during the marriage ceremony.

Khutbatul Nikah A speech given at the time of concluding a marriage contract.

Kohl A powder, made from finely ground antimony and used both as a make-up and as a medicine for the eyes.

Kufee A style of angular writing often used for early hand-written copies of the Qur'an.

Kuffar plural form of kafir.

Kufr to show ungratefulness to Allah and not to believe in Him and His religion. In Arabic - ungratefulness and disbelief in Allah and denial of the truth.

Kufr-i jahli Disbelief from not being aware of or not understanding.
Kufr-i-juhudi Disbelief from obstinacy after being presented with truth.
Kufr-i-hukmi Disbelief from judgment.

There are two levels of Kufr:
1. Kufr al-Akbar (major disbelief)
. Major Kufr is subdivided into five categones;
o Kufr al-Taktheeb: Denying the divine truth.
o Kufr Abaa wa Stakbara ma'al-Tasdeeq:Refusing to bow to Allah due to pride, even though acknowledging the divine truth.
o Kufr ash-Shakk wa Dhann: Doubting any or all of the six articles of faith (see 'Aqaaid), even if not completely denying them.
o Kufr aI-Iraad: Knowingly turning away from the divine truth.
o Kufr al-Nifaq: Disbelief through hypocrisy.
2. Kufr aI-Asghar (minor disbelief). Being unappreciative of what Allah Ta'ala has provided.

Kun Allah's command to the universe, 'Be!' is sufficient to create it.

Kunya A respectful and affectionate way of calling People as "Abu" or "Umm" (Abu = father of, Umm = mother of) followed by the name of the eldest son; if there is no male offspring then the "Abu" or "Umm" is followed by the name of the eldest daughter. It is prohibited to have the same Kunya as the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, e.g. It is not permitted to call someone Abu Qasim". Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 205, Vol.8. Sahih Muslim, Kitabul-A dab.


Laat a chief goddess in the religion of the pre-Islamic Arabs during the days of Jahiliyyah.

La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah The meaning of this expression is: "There is no power and no strength save in Allah." This expression is read by a Muslim when he is struck by a calamity, or is taken over by a situation beyond his control. A Muslim puts his trust in the hands of Allah, and submits himself to Allah.

La ilaha illallah (Laa ilaha illallah) This expression is the most important one in Islam. It is the creed that every person has to say to be considered a Muslim. It is part of the first pillar of Islam. The meaning of which is: "There is no lord worthy of worship except Allah." Also is the message of all the Prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. The second part of this first pillar is to say: "Muhammadun Rasul Allah," which means: "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."

Labbayk Allahuma Allah Here I am (said during hajj), The opening words of the Talbiya, meaning, "I am totally at Your service; I am totally at Your service; o Allah, I am totally at Your service."

Ladha The fifth level of Nar (Hellfire). This will be the home of the Jews. See Jahanam.

Laghw Dirty, false, evil vain talk

Lamas A sale based on the buyer touching the goods without having the chance of actually seeing them.

Lamlam A valley in Jahanam (Hellfire).

La‘nah Imploration for withdrawal of Allah's mercy.

Lateef (Al) "Al-Lateef". The Subtle One Who is All-Pervading. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah. The exact meaning of this word is very difficult to fully understand. It includes all of the following meanings (and more that we are not aware of):
1. So fine that He is imperceptible to the human sight.
2. So pure that He is unimaginable to the human mind.
3. So kind that He is beyond human comprehension.
4. So gracious that He is beyond human grasp.
5. So near that He is closer to us than our jugular veins. See Qur'an, Al-Hajj 22/63, Ash-Shura 42/19.

Lauh al mahfudh A guarded tablet in the Seventh Heaven. The Qur'an was first written on the Lauh aI-Mahfudh in its entirety before it was sent down to the Baitul 'Izza in the First Heaven.

Laylat al-Qadr the Night of Power, towards the end of Ramadan, when Muhammad (saw) received the first revelation of the Qur'an. It is believed to be one of the last ten nights of Ramadan.

Li'aan An oath taken by both the husband and the wife, when the husband accuses his wife of adultery and she denies it. A couple who make Li'aan are automatically and irrevocably divorced and can never remarry. See Qur'an, An-Nur 24/6-9.

Lizzam (Al) Settlement of affairs. In certain Ahadeeth it refers to the Battle of Badr, because it settled the affairs between the Muslims and the Kuffar (unbelievers).

Lunar calendar In their religious duties, Muslims depend on solar and lunar calendars. The latter is shorter than the solar by twelve days. Fasting the month of Ramadhan, celebrating the two major feasts ('Eid Al-Fitr and 'Eid Al-Adhha), performing the pilgrimage to Makkah, and other religious activities depend upon the lunar months. The names of the lunar months are: Muharram, Safar, Rabi' Al-Awwal, Rabi' Al-Thani, Jumada Al-Ula, Jumada Al-Akhirah, Rajab, Sha'ban, Ramadhan, Shawwal, Dhul-Qi'dah, and Dhul-Hijjah. The timing of the daily prayers depend on the solar system.

Luawy Masnu'ah Name of a book containing fabricated Ahadeeth.

Luqatah Article found by a person other than the one who lost it.

Luqman  Name of a wise sage of ancient Arabia. Some say he was a prophet. He has the title of Mu'ammar (the long lived one). Surah 31 of the Qur'an.


Ma'shar Assemblies. Whether they be assemblies of mankind or of the Jinn or both.

Madh'hab (plur Madhahib) school of religious jurisprudence, school of thought

Madinah the first city-state that came under the banner of Islam. It is where the Prophet's masjid and grave are situated.

Mabrur A Hajj that is accepted by Allah because of its perfection in both inward intention and outward observance of the traditions of Rasoolu'llah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Madyan People of the Prophet Shu'aib, peace be on him. They were destroyed by an earthquake for rejecting Shu'aib and the warnings from Allah Ta' ala he had brought with him. See Qur'an, Al-A'raf 7/85-93, Houd 1/84-95.

Madrasah school, university

Maghaiter A foul-smelling gum.

Maghazi the military campaigns of the Prophet

Maghdoub "Cursed" by Allah Ta'ala. Surah Al-Fariha 1/7, "...Maghdoubee 'alaihim..." (those that have been cursed) refers to the Jews. Allah Ta' ala has cursed them for continually breaking their covenants. See Qur' an, Al-Baqara 2/83 - 86, 93,100, Al-Ma' idah 5/13-14, 73.

Maghfirah Forgiveness. In the Qur'an Allah Ta'ala uses three different words to mean "forgive":
1. 'Afa. Forgave, in the sense of obliterating the memory of wrondoing from one's mind.
2. Safaha. Forgave, in the sense of overlooking, ignoring or turning away from misdeeds.
3. Maghflra. Comes from one of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala, "Al-Ghafur", which means to forgive again and again.

Maghrebee A combination of Kufee (angular) and Naskh (curved) scripts often used for hand-written copies of the Qur'an written in north-west Africa.

Maghreb (Maghrib ) Sunset. The fourth compulsory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It consists of three Raq'as. It can be prayed right after the sun sets over the horizon (at any time between just after sunset and before the stars appear in the sky).

Mahabbah (shirk al) A major Shirk. Loving a created being or an object more than Allah Ta'ala. See Shirk.

Mahdi "a guide". More specifically al-Mahdi (the guide) is a figure who will appear with Prophet Jesus before the end of time, when Allah allows it, to bring world peace, order and justice, after it has been overcome with injustice and aggression.

Mahdur ad-damm  he whose blood must be wasted

Mahr a dowry given by the man to the woman he is about to marry. It is part of the Muslim marriage contract. It can never be demanded back under any circumstances.

Mahram (mahrim) A mahram refers to the group of people who are unlawful for a woman to marry due to marital or blood relationships. These people include:
1. Her permanant Mahrams due to blood relationship, and those seven are: her father, her son (who passed puberty), her brother, her uncle from her father's side, her brother's son, her sister's son, and her uncle from her mother's side.
2. Her Radha' Mahrams due to sharing the nursing milk when she was an infant, and their status is similar to the permanent seven Mahrams (i.e. nothing can change their status).
3. Her (in law) Mahrams because of marriage and they are: her husband's father (father in law), her husband's son (step son), her mother's husband (step father), and her daughter's husband.
These categories of people, along with the woman's husband, form the group of allowable escorts for a Muslim woman when she travels.

Maiser Gambling. Literally means getting something too easily. Maiser has been prohibited by Allah Ta'ala in the strongest terms possible : "Ijtanibou" - "Leave it!". It is a higher level of prohibition than forbidding it because it is Haram. Hararn = a direct prohibition ordered by Allah Ta'ala. Ijtanibou = a degree more serious than Ha ram. It is not only Haram, but also a direct command not to approach or be near it for any reason whatsoever. See Qur'an, Al-Ba qara 2/2 19, Al-Ma' idah 5/93.

Majeed "Al-Majeed". The Most Glorious. One of the ninety-nine Attributes ofAllah.

Majoos Fire worshippers. These people lived mainly in Persia and the Eastern Arabian Peninsula in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. See Qur' an, Al-Haft 22/17.

Makr Has two meanings:
1. Plotting or planning with evil intent.
2. Planning for a good purpose:
"Wa Makaru wa Makara Allah wa'llahu Khairul Makereen" Surah Aali 'Imran 3/54. "They planned and Allah planned and Allah is the best of planners".
Makaru = they plotted. Makara = He planned.
Makkar = plotter.
Makereen= plotters.

Makrūh  Means "detested", though not haraam (forbidden) Disapproved of, but not prohibited by Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala; something that is disliked or offensive. If a person commits the Makruh, he does not accumulate ithim but avoiding the Makhruh is rewarded with thawab. See Ahkam

Malaikah (Malā’ikah) (Sing Malak) angels. It was one of these mala'ika, Jibril (Gabriel) who delivered Allah's revelation to Muhammad.

• "Angels". Another name for Suratul Fatir. Surah 35 of the Qur' an.
• A race of created beings that are made out of light. Their sole purpose in creation is to worship and glorify Allah and to perform their duties exactly as described. They are incapable of disobedience. They do not eat, or sleep, or procreate. Their exact number is unknown. Amongst the well-known ones are the following:
1. The angel Jibreel (Gabriel) - the angel whose duty is to communicate between Allah Ta'ala and the prophets and to whomever Allah wills; e.g. he was commanded to communicate with Mariam (Mary,Mother of the Prophet Jesus), Jesus and Muhammad, may Allah bless them and grant them peace.
2. The angel Mikaeel (Michael) - the angel of provisions.
3. The angel of Death - takes the souls of people when they die. Many Muslims mistakenly call him Izrael. The name "Izrael" is neither mentioned in the Book of Allah, the Qur'an, nor by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in any of the Ahadeeth. The name "Izrael" is mentioned in the Taurat and therefore has been 'borrowed' from the Jews. Beware of such innovations. Copying the Jews or any other unbelievers, and then saying "This is from Allah", is Kufr
4. The angel Israfeel - the angel who will blow the horn to bring the universe to its end.
5. The angel Ridwan - keeper of Jannah (Paradise).
6. The angel Maalik - keeper of Nar (Hellfire).
7. The angels Munkar and Nakeer - the two angels who are assigned to question the souls of the dead in their graves about their fa ith.
Peace be on all of them.

Malak Singular of Malaikab (angels). See Malaikah.

Ma malakat aymanukum one's rightful spouse (literally: what your right hands possess)

Mamnu'a What is prohibited in acts of worship in the Shari'a. For example, doing voluntary Salat (prayers) between the Fajr Salat and sunrise, or between the Asr Salat and sunset; fasting on either of the two 'Eid days.

Manaat A famous goddess in the Hijaz who used to be worshipped by the pagan Arabs in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. See Holy Qur' an, An-Najim (53):20

Manasi A huge plateau on the outskirts of Madin ah.

Manasik General sacrifice in the path of Allah Ta'ala. All deeds and actions during the Hajj are regarded as Manasik, for they are indeed regarded as sacrifices in the path of Allah.

Mansookh Abrogated. The abrogation of certain commands usually came with increased belief or a change in situation. Only Allah Ta'ala has the power to abrogate verses of the Qur'an. An example of an abrogated statement is: "...wa in too bdu ma fee anfooseekum aw too khfoohu youhasibkumbihi Allah..."(Al-Baqara 2/284, "...whether you show what is in your mind or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it...". When the Muslims heard this Ayah they went to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said: "O Rasoolullah, we can control ourselves, but how can we control the outbursts in our hearts?" (i.e. sudden thoughts that Shaitan puts within us). The Prophet Muhammad said: "Do you intend to say, 'Same'na wa asaina' (We hear and we disobey), as did both the People of the Book (i.e. the Jews and the Christians)? Say, 'Same'na wa ata'na!'." So they said, 'Same'na wa ata'na (We hear and we obey) . On hearing their reply Allah Ta'ala abrogated this verse, by revealing the 286th verse of Surah al-Bqara. "La youkalifu'llahu nafsan lila wus'aha...", "Allah does not burden a soul beyond its scope...". The aim of the 284th verse of Surah al-Baqara was to test the followers of Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them, as to whether or not they would say the same as the Jews and the Christians who used to say, "Same 'na wa 'asaina" (We hear and we disobey)

Mandub  commendable or recommended. Failure to do it would not be a sin. (See halal mustahabb)

Manzil one of seven parts of the Qur'an

Ma‘rūf consensus of the community

Marwah a mound near the Ka'bah that is referred to in the Quran as one of the symbols of Allah. It is in conjuction with Safa. See Sa'i Safa and Marwa.

Maqasid goals or purposes; such as the purposes of Islamic law

Maqam Ibrahim The station of Ibrahim. The place where the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be on him, stood in prayer, and which marks the place of prayer following Tawaf of the Ka'aba. This place today is marked by a stone in which there are two large sunken footprints, said to have been made by the Prophet Ibrahim when he stood on the stone while he and his son Ismael were building the Ka'aba.

Al-maqam al mahmoud The highest station in Jannah (Paradise). This place will be granted to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and to no-one else. Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 242, Book 60, Vol.6.

Marut One of the two angels that were sent by Allah as a trial to mankind by way of allowing Harut and Marut to teach them magic. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/102.

Masajid (Sing Masjid) Mosques. Places of worship forthe Muslims. The whole earth is a Masjid for the Muslims, the dome of the heavens its roof.

Maskeen (Sing Miskeen) visibly in need, but also those who seem in no need of help, but who in reality are very poor.
Masha Allah Allah
 has willed it.

Mash'ar al haram (Al) The boundary of AI-Masjid al-Haram in Makkah. It is prohibited to kill any game, or to damage any plant or tree, or to act in any manner that will violate the sanctity of the Holy Mosque.

Mashhad a shrine Literally, a "place of martyrdom," and such shrines usually are located where someone has been martyred.

Masīh (Maseeh; Messiah)  the (Biblical) Messiah, Jesus Christ.

Masjid (Plur Masajid) a place of worship and salaah. The life of the early Muslims used to revolve around the masjid. Meetings would be held there, discussions would take place there. It is called a 'mosque' in English. A place where the five daily compulsory prayers are regularly done, except for the Jum'a prayers (the Friday noon prayer and Friday Khutba). The Masjid Jame' is the place where all the five compulsory Salat (Prayers) and the Jurn'a prayers are regularly done. The Masjid Jame' is usually larger than a Masjid.

Masjid al-aqsa (Al) The 'Furthest Mosque' built by the early Muslims in Jerusalem, on or near where the Temple of Solomon once stood. See Baitul-Maqdis.

Masjid al-haram (Al) The Grand Masjid in Makkah. The Ka'ba (the Qiblah of the Muslims) is situated within it. the area around the Kaaba.

Masjid an-nabawi (Al) Another name for the Masjid ar-Rasool in Al-Madinah. It is the second greatest Masjid in Islam, the first being the Masjid al-Haram in Al-Makkah al-Mukaramah, and the third being the Masjid al-Aqsa in AI-Quds (Jerusalem).

Masjid ar-rasool (Al) The Prophet's Masjid (mosque) in Al-Madina al-Munawara, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is the second of the three greatest Masajid (mosques) in Islam. The other two are AI-Masjid al-Haram in Makkah al-Mukaramah, and Al-Masjid al-Aqsa in Al-Quds (Jerusalem). Also known as Al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

Masjid-jame' The main place of worship for Muslims in a village, town or city.. It is where all the five daily compulsory prayers take place, including the Friday noon prayer and the Khutba (sermon). See Masjid.

Maslahah (plur masaalih) Considerations of public interest. It is generally held that the principal objective of the Sharee`ah and all its commandments is to realize the genuine maslahah or benefit of the people.

Maslahah al Mursalah, al (plur al masaalih al mursalah) A consideration which is proper and harmonious with the objectives of the Lawgiver; it secures a benefit or prevents a harm, but the Sharee`ah provides no indication as to its validity or otherwise. For example, the Companions decided to issue currency, to establish prisons, and to impose a tax on agricultural lands despite the fact that no textual authority could be found for these measures.

Ma‘sūm (plur Ma'sumin) literally, innocent or free of sin; children are considered masum. Can also refer to an adult individual who does not commit sins, does not make mistakes, does not forget, etc. although he/she does have the choice to commit sins.

Mathani The often repeated Ayat ofthe Qur' an, especially the Surat al-Fatiha, for it is always recited during Salat, in every Rak'a.

Mawla (Maula) (pl. mawli) protector or supporter.  a person of slave origin who does not have tribal protection. It is a word with dual meaning. It can mean either master or servant. Literally means protector. Allah Subhana waTa'ala describes Himself as the Maula of the believers. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/256, Aali 'Imran 3/152, Al-Ha'j 22/78. Maula also has the meaning of "master". 1. Satan is the Maula to the unbelievers. 2. The master is a Maula to his slave. Maula is also the term used to describe a freed slave who remains as part of the family.

Mawlaya a form of address to a ruler implying protector.

Mawaqeet  Plural of Miqat. See Miqat.

Mecca (Makkah) the holiest city in Islam

Medina (Madīnah) "city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet." See Hijra (Islam).

Mi‘ād the Resurrection; God will resurrect all of humankind to be judged

Mihrab a recess in the masjid that indicates the direction of salaah.

Millah In Arabic, millah means "religion," but it has only been used to refer to religions other than Islam, which is din.

Millet In an Islamic state, "Ahl al Kitab" may continue to practice their former religion in a semi-autonomous community termed the millet.

Mina (minna) a plain within the bounds of the haram of Mecca, within five kilometers outside the city. During the Hajj the pilgrims pass the night between the eighth and ninth day proceed to Arafat on the ninth day.

Minaret a tower built onto a mosque from the top of which the call to prayer is made

Minbar a pulpit.

Minhaj methodology, e.g. methods, rules, system, procedures.

Miqat intended place

Miraj the Ascension to the Seven Heavens during the Night Journey See also: isra The Night Journey of the Prophet Muhammad, may Alllah bless him and grant him peace, from Makka to Jerusalem and then through the realms of the seven Heavens, beyond the limit of forms, the Sidrat al-Muntaha, to within a bow-span's length or nearer to the Presence of Allah. See Qur' an, Al-Isra 17/1. See Bukhari, Hadith 345, Book 8, Vol.1 ,and 227,book 58 Vol.5.

Miqat (plur Mithqaal) A measure of weight for weighing gold in this world and deeds on the Day of Judgement in the next world.

Miskin (plur masakin) denotes helplessness, destitution. Thus masakin are those who are in greater distress than the ordinary poor people. Explaining this word the Prophet (saw) declared that masakin are those who cannot make both ends meet, who face acute hardship and yet whose sense of self-respect prevents them from asking for aid from others and whose outward demeanour fails to create the impression that they are deserving of help.

Mu'jizaat Miracles.

Muhkam Qur'anic verses which have a clear-cut meaning.

Muhsanat means 'protected women'. It has been used in the Qur'an in two different meanings. First, it has been used in the sense of 'married women', that is, those who enjoy the protection of their husbands. Second, it has been used in the sense of those who enjoy the protection of families as opposed to slave-girls.

Mu'takif A person who is in the state of 'Itikaf. See Itikaf.

Muadhen The man who calls the Adhan loudly before each obligatory Salat (Prayer), calling the people to prayer.

Muakkad (Salat) Voluntary prayers regularly done. This type of optional prayer was virtually always done by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Nafilah.

Mu‘awwidhatayn suras Al-Falaq and an-Nas, the "Surahs of refuge", should be said to relieve suffering (also protect from Black Magic) The two Surahs of seeking protection, Surat Al-Falaq 113 and SurarAn-Nas 114. These Suwar were revealed for mankind and the Jinn to protect themselves from evil and black magic. It is Kufr (unbelief) to delve into the black arts, since this is a denial of the truth that there is no strength and no power except from Allah.

Mubarak Blessed. Having received the blessings of Allah.

Mubashirat Glad tidings. Good dreams.

Mubiqat Major, destructive sins.

Mubāḥ literally permissible; neither forbidden nor commended. Neutral. (See halal)

Mubaligh person who recites Qur'an

Muftī an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of "fatwa").

Muhajabah woman who wears hijab (polite form of hijabi).

Mufassal (Al) The last, shorter Surahs of the Qur' an. From Surah Qaf 50 to Surat an-Nas 114.

Mufassalat Same as Mufassal.

Mufrid A Muslim who remembers Allah Ta' ala constantly.

Muhaddith (Plur Muhaditheen) A scholar of Ahadeeth (sayings and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace).

Muhadhitheen (Sing Muhadith) Scholars of Ahadeeth (sayings and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace).

Muhajir (Plur Muhajireen) A Muslim who emigrated from Makkah to Madinah during the time of the great repression of the Muslims by the pagan Quraish up until the conquest of Makkah in 8AH by the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Muhajireen Plural of Muhajir. See Qur'an, Al-Hashr 59/8-9, Al-Munafiqun 63/7. See Muhajir.

Muhammadun rasulullah  "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah." This statement is the second part of the first pillar of Islam. This is the second most important statement in Islam.

Muadh-dhin the person who calls the adhan.

Mufsidūn (Plur mufsideen) evil-doer a person who wages jihad (war) not in accordance with the Qur'an.

1. Encompassing, in the sense of being all around them, thus giving the sense that there will be no escape for the evil-doers from Allah and His punishment, and that the believers will find Allah's blessings and mercy wherever they turn. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/19, Houd 11/84.
2. The ocean (because it encompasses the land mass).

Muhrim One who assumes Ihram. See Ihram.

Muhrima A female who assumes Ihram. See Ihram.

Mu'sir A Mu'sir who intends to do the Hajj or an Umra, but is unable to do so due to some obstacle.

Muhsin (Plur Muhsineen) One who is in a state of Ihsan and accordingly does right and does good deeds. See Ihsan.

Muhsineen (Sing Mubsin) good-doers. People who do righteous deeds in a perfect manner. (opposite of Mufsideen)

1- First month in the Islamic, calendar, which is calculated from the time the Prophet Muhammad pbuh migrated to Yathrib (Madinah).
2-   Strictly forbidden by Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.

Muhartiq heretic.

Mujāhid (Plur mujahidīn) a fighter for Islam. Someone who is active and fights for Islam. A Muslim fighter. The opposite of qaideen.

Mujtahid (Plur Mujtahidun/Mujtahidoon) One who exercises ijtihaad A scholar who uses reason for the purpose of forming an opinion or making a ruling on a religious issue.

Muqallid (plur Mugallidoon) One who follows or imitates another, often blindly and unquestioningly.

Murji'ah Deferrers. Those who defer judgment of the sinner to Alalh and the Day of Judgment.

Mulaa'ana The act of carrying out LI'aan. See Li'aan.

Mulammas "Touched", as a synonym of Lamas. See Lamas.

Mulhid (Plur Mulhidoon or Mulhideen) Atheist. A complete disbeliever in Allah Ta'ala and the Last Day. Derives from Ilhad (atheism). Ilhad literally means deviation. For a full explanation: See Ilhad.

Mullah are Islamic clergy. Ideally, they should have studied the Qur'an, Islamic traditions (hadith), and Islamic law (fiqh).

Multazam (Al) The area between the Black Stone and the door of the Ka'aba where it is recommended to make Du'a.

Mu'min a person who has deep faith in Allah and is a righteous and obedient servant of His.

Munafiq a hypocrite, one whose external appearance is Islam (praying, fasting, "activism", etc.) but whose inner reality conceals kufr - often unbeknownst to the person themselves. (See Al-Baqarah 2/8-23). A Munafiq is more dangerous and worse than a Kafir.

Munafiqeen (Munafiqoon) (Sing Munafiq) Hypocrites. They are the worst of created beings, for they pretend to, but do not believe in Allah and the Last Day. Allah has cursed them (At-Tawbah 9/67-69) and on the Day of Judgement they will occupy the lowest depth of the Nar (Hellfire), called "Hutama".

Munabathah "Thrown", as synonym of Nibadh. See Nibadh.

1.   Name of one of the two angels who will question us in our graves. See Munkar wa Nakir.
2.   Something that is disapproved of in Islam.
3.   Something that is denied when it is said or pointed out.
4.   Something that is refused when offered.

Munkar wa Nakir, peace be upon them The two angels who will question the souls of the dead in their graves shortly after burial about their faith, asking, "Who is your Lord? Who is your Prophet? What is your Book? What was your Deen?" See Malaikah.

Muntaqabah  (plur muntaqabāt) woman who wears niqab

Muqarraboon Literally means "those who have been brought near". These are the most exalted, the most loved by Allah Ta'ala. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah Ta'ala will sort out the good and the evil into three groups:
1. Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are the nearest to Allah Ta' ala. Also described as the Sabiqoon, meaning 'those who outstrip the rest'.
2. Ashab al-Maimana - literally means "the Companions of the Right". These are the righteous people, those who are destined to enter the Jannah (Paradise).
3. Ashab al-Mashama - literally means "the Companions of the Left". These people will be the inheritors of the Nar (Hellfire). See Al-Waqi'ah (56:11-56).
For full explanation on;
Muqarraboon - see Al- Wa qi'ah 56/11-26.
Ashab al-Maimana - see Al- Wa qi'ah 56/27-40.
Ashab al-Mashama - see Al- Wa qi'ah 56)/41-56.

Muqata'at See Alif-lam-mim.

Murabit a person who is on the road spreading Islam.

Mursaleen Literally means "those who are sent". It refers to the prophets and messengers sent by Allah Ta'ala. Allah sent many prophets and messengers to preach the message of Tawheed to Ins wal Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Their exact number is not Ahadeeth. Here is a complete list of the prophets and messengers of Allah who are mentioned in the Book of Allah Ta'ala, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on all of them:

Name of Prophet     Age      Period From  To       Remarks
1. Adam              950-1000         ?        ?            The first human.
2. Idris                  83                ?         ?           Enoch.
3. Nooh(M)            950             3900  2900BC       Noah.
4. Houd                 150             2500  2200BC       Preached to 'Ad.
5. Saleh                 58              2000  1900BC       Preached to Thamud.
6. Ibhrahim (NI)      175             1861  1786BC       Abraham.
7. Loot                  175             1861  1786BC       Lot.
8. Ismael             120or143        1781  1638BC       Shmael.
9. Ishaq              178or180         1761  1681BC      Isaac.
10.Yacoub             147              1700  1653BC       Jacob.
11.Yusuf              110               1610  l5OOBC        Joseph.
12.Shuaib              ?                 1600  15OOBC       Preached to Madyan.
13.Ayoub               92               1600  1500BC          Job.
14.Dhu'l-Kifel         75                1600  15OOBC         Ezekiel.
15.Musa(M)            120             1436  1316BC          Moses.
16.Haroon             122             1439  1317BC            Aaron.
17.Dawood (NI)       70             1043  937BC             David.
18.Sulaiman            53              985  932BC            Solomon.
19.Ilyas                  ?                9   BC ca.               Elijah.
20.Al-Yas'              ?                9   BC Ca.               Elisha.
21.Yunus                ?                8   BC Ca.               Jonas.
22.Zakariah           120            100BC  2OAC              Father of Yahyah.
23. Yahya              30              1BC  3OAC                John the Baptist.
24.Isa(M)              33               1   33AC                   Jesus.
25.Muhammad(M)         63             571  632AC             The Final Messenger.
(M)= a messenger as well as a prophet of Allah Ta'ala; i.e. one who came with a new message, a revelation that confirmed the earlier revelations, but which contained new elements appropriate for its time.

Murshid  teacher

Murtad Apostate. Plural: Murtadeen. female apostate is Murtadah apostate (see irtidadsee mahdur ad-damm.)

Murtaddeen People who become apostates, i.e. people who become unbelievers after having believed.
Mutashaabihaat: Allegorical. Refers to verses (aayaat) of the Qur'an which are expressed in a figurative manner in contradistinction to aayaat muhkamaat or verses which are clear in and by themselves.

Mu`tazilah Group of rationalist thinkers who flourished from the middle of the second to the beginning of the fourth hijree century.

Musalla A place for praying that is not a Masjid.

Musad'afin a weak and oppressed person

Musalaymah a false prophet.

Mushaf  a copy of the Quran.

Mushawarah means consultation.

Mushrik (plur mushrikoon) a polythiest. A person who ascribes partners to Allah.

Mushrikeen (Sing Mushrik) Idol-worshippers. People who associate partners with Allah Ta'ala, such as the Christians, who have raised the Prophet Isa (Jesus, Son of Mary), peace be on them, to the level of Allah. Allah Ta'ala may forgive any sin which man or Jinn may commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. See Shirk.

Muslim Literally means "submission of will", i.e. to the will of Allah the Almighty. A Muslim is someone who follows the way of Islam, not abandoning what is Fard, keeping within the Hudood of Allah, and following the Sunnah, in what he or she is able. A Muslim is by definition one who is safe and sound, at peace in this world, and promised the Garden in the next world.

Mustad'af One who is considered weak, and therefore is treated in a disrespectful manner. See Qur'an, An-Nisaa 4/75.

Mustad'afin (mustadafin) Weak and oppressed persons. Plural of Mustad'af

Mustafa One who is considered weak, and therefore is treated in a disrespectful manner. See Qur'an, An-Nisaa 4/75.

Mustaḥabb commendable or recommended. (See halal, mandub, Arkan)

Mut‘ah literally joy; a type of temporary marriage which is prohibited ane practiced only by the Shī‘ah. This was permitted in the early period of Islamic history, when the first Muslims were away from their homes for extensive periods of time; but was abrogated by the Prophet Muhammad himself, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at Khaibar, as is related by Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, in Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari.; or a practice between ‘Umrah and Ḥajj.

Mutabbar Smashed into pieces. Destroyed. See Holy Qur' an, Al-A'raf (7):139.

Mutaffifeen (Al) "The People who deal in Fraud". Surah 83 of the Qur'an, Al-Mutafifeen 83/1-6.

Muta'sibūn fanatics

Mutaween (Sing mutawa) Religious police.

Mutawātir "agreed upon"--used to describe hadith that were narrated by many witnesses through different narration chains (isnads) leading back to Muhammad

Mutheera" (Al) The fragrant air of Jannah (Paradise).

Muttaqi is derived from its noun taqwa, which signifies God-consciousness, a sense of responsibility and accountability, dedication and awe - those things that prompt one to fulfil one's duty. Taqwa, or heedfulness, is the main criterion by which God values the deeds of a Muslim 49/13.

Muzdalifah Place where pilgrims on Hajj stop for a time during the night of the day 9th of Dhul-Hijjah they spend at Arafat.

Muzzammil (AL) "The Enshrouded One". Surah 73 of the Qur'an.


Nabi (Nabbi, Nabee) The meaning of the word Nabi is a prophet. To be a prophet he should receive a revelation from Allah that does not necessarily mean a revealed book. When a prophet is instructed to deliver his message to a certain group of people, he is a messenger. It is stated in the Qur'an that there are no more prophets and messengers after Muhammad. literally, prophet. In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Abraham was a Nabi. This is in contrast to Rasul, or Messenger. Prophet. There have been many prophets since the world was first created. Their exact number is not mentioned either in the Holy Qur'an or in any of the authenticated Ahadith (sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Only twenty-five of them are actually named in the Holy Qur'an, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on all of them. See Mursaleen for the complete list. Plural: Anbiyaa. Plural: Anbiya. See: Rasul.

Nafs soul, one's self

Nafar A small group of people, usually between three and ten in number.

Nafilah Optional Salat. They are of two types:
1. Sunnah - the optional Salat that one does before and after the Fard Salat. These voluntary Salat fall into two categories:
o Muakkad - confirmed. These types of Salat were always regularly done by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
o Ghair-Muakkad - not confirmed. These types of Salat were often, but not always, practised by the Prophet Muhammad.
2. Others - any other Salat that one may wish to perform;for example, doing two Rak'at before making a Du'a. With the exception of the Witr prayer, NafiIah prayers always consist of two Rak'at at a time. See Witr. Plural: Nawafil.

Nafl A gift. From the same root as Anfal, meaning booty taken in war. It means a voluntary act of Ibadah. A voluntary act of supererogatory devotion such as Nafl Prayer or Nafl Fast. See Nafilah

1. The 12th or 13th of Dhu'l-Hijjah when the Hujjaj (pilgrims) leave Mina.
2. To go forth and be ready to strive and suffer in the way of Allah Ta' ala. See Holy Qur' an, At-Taubah 9/39.

Nahd Sharing travelling expenses by putting the money or food into a kitty and distributing them equally among the travellers.

Nahi 'anil munkar Forbidding the evil. The full phrase is "Amr bil Ma'roof wa Nahi 'anil Munkar" (enjoining the good and forbidding the evil).

Nahnu "We". The plurality of respect and honour. Allah Ta'ala uses "We" to express His honour and greatness. It is not the plurality of numbers, for Allah is One and Unique. There is nothing like Him and there is none comparable to Him. Allah did not beget nor was He begotten.

1. Slaughtering camels.
2. The Day of Nahr takes place on the 10th of Dhu'l-Hijjah, when the Hujjaj sacrifice camels, goats, sheep, etc., as one of the rites of the Hajj. See Eid al-Adha, Haji.

Najāsah  Impurity

Najasat, Najis   an unclean thing

Najis impure

1. A private talk between Allah the Almighty and one of His slaves on the Day of Resurrection. See Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 621, Book 43, Vol.3.
2. A secretive talk amongst the Kuffar plotting against the Holy Prophet Muhammad and his followers, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them. See Surah al-Mujadalah (58):8.

Nakir One of the two angels who will question us in our graves. See Munkar wa Nakir.

Nakir and Munkar two malaikah who test the faith of the dead in their graves

Naksh A style of curved writing often used for early hand-written the Qur'an.

1. Leader of a small group of men going on an expedition.
2. Tribal chief.

Nar world, including all seven levels of Hellfire as a whole. See Jahanam.

Nas (An) "Mankind". Surah 114 of the Qur' an. three different levels of mankind:
1. Mutaqoon - people who fear Allah Ta'ala and do not comit Kabair (major sins).
2. Mukhalatoon - people who commit Kabair (major sins),inspite of their belief in Allah.
3. Kuffar - unbelievers, who do not believe in Allah. Not only do they commit Kabair, but also they commit the greatest wrong action of all, Shirk.

Nasab means lineage or geneology.

Nasara is the name given to the followers of the Christian faith both in the Qur'an and Hadith.

Nasi was a practice in vogue among the pre-Islamic Arabs: they altered the duration of the four sacred months. Whenver they  wished to start fighting or to loot and plunder - and they could not do so during the sacred months - they carried out their expedition in one of the sacred months and then later on compensated for this violation by treating one of the non-sacred months as a sacred month.

Nasihah means sincere good advice.

Naskh  Abrogation of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an 2/106

Naasikh (active participle). Refers to the passage which abrogates or supersedes the part which is abrogated. The abrogated passage is called mansookh (passive participle).

Nass (plur nusoos). Text. A clear textual ruling or injunction from the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

Nawafil Plural of Nafilah. See Nafilah.

Naṣṣ a known, clear legal injunction

Nibadh A sale whereby a deal is finalized by the seller throwing the sold object towards the buyer, thus giving him no opportunity of seeing, touching or checking it before the sale is concluded.

Nifas the bleeding after childbirth (see Haid)

Nifaq  falsehood; dishonesty Hypocrisy. One of the greatest sins in the sight of Allah Ta'ala. The punishment for Nifaq is the lowest pit of an-Nar (Hellfire), the Hutama. See Jahanam.

Nifaq (al-kufr) A major Kufr. Disbelief through hypocrisy. See Kufr.

Nikah Marriage according to the law of Allah Ta'ala. The courtesies and requirements regarding Nikah are extensive and cannot be fully explained in this book. For more information on Nikah please see Kitabul Nikah (Book of Nikah) in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/221, An-Nisa(4/3, 20-25, 35, 128-129, Al-Ma'idah 5/6, An-Nur 24/3,32-33, Al-Ahzab 33/28-29, 49-52.

Niqab A type of Hijab (veil) that covers the entire face, as opposed to the Khimar, which leaves the eyes exposed.

Niyyat (niyyah) intention. The intention of the heart. It is by their Niyyat that Allah Ta'ala judges the actions of Ins wa'l-Jinn (mankind and the Jinn).

Niyyah (Niyyat) Intention. A legally required statement of intent, made prior to all acts of devotion such as salat, Hajj or sawm.

Niyyah wal Iradah wal Qasd (Shirk al) A major Shirk. Having the intention and determination to deliberately do any type of act of worship to a deity other than Allah Ta' ala. See Shirk.

Nis'a (Riba al) A type of interest. Taking interest on loaned money. This is completly Haram. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/275-280 Aali'imran 3/13O.

Niqāb veil covering the face

Noon Fish. See Dhu'l-Noon.

Nubuwwah prophethood.

Nukra a great munkar - prohibited, evil, dreadful thing.

Nūr (Noor) light. Muslims believe angels were created from light and jinn from fire. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah. This is such a complex Attribute that it is impossible to explain it in one volume. Its full spiritual meaning is only understood by Allah Ta'ala Himself, for "Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth". See Ayat an-Nur ; An-Nur 24/35-36.

Nusk An act of worship. Singular of Nusuk. See Nusuk.

Nusub signify all places consecrated for offerings to others than the One True God, regardless of whether they are images of  stone or something else.

Nusuk (Plur Manasik) A general sacrifice in the path of Allah. All the deeds and actions of Hajj are regarded as Nusuk, for they are indeed regarded as sacrifices in the path of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.

Nuzool The revelation of the  Qur'an. The revelation of the Qur'an was revealed in three stages:
1. It was first written on the Lauh al-Mahfudh, i.e. on the guarded tablet in the Seventh Heaven.
2. On the Lailatul Qadr Allah Ta' ala sent the entire Qur' an down to the Baitul 'Izza in the First Heaven.
3. During the month of Ramadan Allah Ta'ala ordered the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him, to start to reveal the Qur'an to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but not all at once. The entire revelation of the Qur'an took twenty-three years.


P.B.U.H. These letters are abbreviations for the words Peace Be Upon Him which are the meaning of the Arabic expression " 'Alaihis Salam", which is an expression that is said when the name of a prophet is mentioned. This expression is widely used by English speaking Muslims. It is to be noticed here that this expression does not give the full meaning of "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam". Therefore it is recommended that people do not use (p.b.u.h.) after the name of prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.); they should use "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam" instead, or they may use the abbreviated form of (s.a..w) in writing. an ancronym which stands for "peace be unto him" a blessing which is affixed to Muhammad's name whenever it is written. This is obviously the English version of it, and the Arabic version is S.A.W.

Prophet A person who has had messages from Allah. (see nabi).

Prayer is performed five times a day. It is the direct link between the worshiper and Allah. The prayers are said in Arabic


Qadhf   false imputation of unchastity specifically punished by sharia.

Qabr Grave.Life in the Qabr (the grave)is known as the "Barzakh", the interspace, because it comes between in this world and life in the next world. The Qabr is known by six names:
1. Bait al-Ghurba (House of the Stranger).
2. Bait al-Wahda (House of Solitude).
3. Bait al-Turab (House of Dust).
4. Bait al-Door (House of Worms).
5. Bait al-Fitna (House of Trail).
6. Bait al-Dhulma (House of Darkness).

The grave is experienced as a place of peace and light and spaceby the Ruh (soul/spirit) of the Mumin who sees his or her place in the Garden in the morning and in the evening; and is experienced as a place of torment and darkness and no space by the Ruh of the Kafir who sees his or her place in the Fire in the morning and in the evening. After death there is a period of waiting in the grave for the Ruh until the Last Day arrives, when every one who has ever live will be brought back to life and gathered together. their action will be weight in the Mizan (the Balance), and every one will either go to the Garden or the Fire, for ever.

Qada wa Qadar Decree and Destiny. Qada means what Allah has ordained for all the world. Qada can not be changed, for the decree of Allah is final. Qadar is the individual fate, or destiny if each one of all His creature. It also can not be changed but may be altered by Allah under special circumstances, for "Allah has power over all thing" (Qur'an, Al-Ma'idah 5/19.)

Qadar  predestination. Allah's complete and final control over the fulfillment of events or destiny.

Qadi judge.

Qadr (Lailatul) One of the last ten nights of Ramadan. See Qur'an, Al-Qadr 97. See Lailatul-Qadr.

Qaideen people who remain inactive and do not actively fight. The opposit of mujahid.

Qaiyim Straight and clear. Something which has no corners, bends or ambiguity. Something which is straightforward and clear and leads to the Right Path. It refers to the Qur'an. See Qur' an, Al-Kahf 18/2.

Qalam (Al) "The Pen", Surah 68 of the Qur' an.

Qalb The heart, where true knowledge resides. Plural: Qulub.

Qamar (Al) "The Moon". Surah 54 of the Qur' an.

Qard a loan given for a good cause in the name of Allah, in hopes of repayment or reward in the Hereafter.

Qardan Hasana "A beautiful loan" (to Allah Ta'ala). Spending in the cause of Allah Ta'ala is described by Allah Ta'ala Himself as "a beautiful loan" because it entails self-denial for the sake of Allah Ta'ala. It is for this reason that Allah has promised a rich reward for those who expend their wealth in His Path. See Qur' an, Al-Baqara 2/245, Al-Hadid 57/11, 18.

1. One who performs Hajj al-Qiran. See Hajj.
2. An independent soul that resides inside a person. It is normally a friendly companion who helps the individual, but sometimes gets jealous and causes problems. A male Qareen resides in a male person and a female Qareen in a female,
3. Companion.

Qari (Plur Qurra) someone who recites the Quran. One who memorizes the Qur' an by heart and constantly recites it. Early religious scholar or teacher.

Qarn Al_Manazil The Miqat of the pilgrims travelling through Najd, in Arabia (from the east). See Miqat.

Qaroon Korah A wealthy Kafir who led a rebellion (of 250 men) against the Prophets Musa (Moses) and Haroon (Aaron), peace be on them. As a punishment Allah Ta'ala caused the earth to open and swallow them up along with all that they possessed. See Qur'an, Al- Qasas 28/76-82, Al-Ankabut 29/39.

Qasab Pipes made of gold, pearls and other precious metals.

Qasama (Al) The oath taken by fifty men of a tribe or a locality of a person who is being accused of murder, to refute accusations of complicity in unclear cases of homicide.

Qassas (Al) "The Story". Surah 28 of the Holy Qur' an.

Qaswa (Al) The name of the Prophet Muhammad's she-camel, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Qasr which literally means 'to shorten', is technically used to signify the Islamic rule that during one's journey it is permissible, and indeed preferable, to pray only two rak'ahs in those obligatory Prayers in which a person is required to pray four rak'ahs.

Qat`ee Definitive, unequivocal; free of speculative content.

Qawwam (qayyim) is a person responsible for administering or supervising the affairs of either an individual or an organization, for protecting and safeguarding them and taking care of their needs.

Qeel wa Qaal Idle talk.

Qatlu nafsi-hi suicide is forbidden in Islam

Qiblah it is the direction that Muslims face when they do their salaah. It is in the direction of the Ka'bah in Mecca. Initially the Qiblah was towards al-Quds (Jerusalem), then Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala ordered the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to face al-Ka'ba in Makkah al-Mukarramah. Everyone has a direction in life, but only the Muslims have this Qiblah. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/142-145, 149-150.

Qirada Apes. Allah Ta'ala uses this word with regard to some Jews who transgressed the Sabbath and who were transformed into apes as a punishment. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/65.

Qiran (Hajj Al) "Combined Hajj'. Umra, then Hajj, without taking off the Ihram. See Hajj.

Qisas retaliation in kind (eye for an eye). In Islam though, retaliation should be forgone as an act of charity Surah 5, Ayah 48; Qur' an, Al-Baqara 2/178-179. equitable retribution - a fine for murder if the heirs forgive the perpetrator. (See hudud, tazeer)

Qitaal fee sebil Allah fight in the cause of Allah, a Qur'anic commandment.

Qiyaas "According [the Islamic scholar al Shafi`i], Qiyaas is a method for reaching a legal decision on the basis of evidence (a precedent) in which a common reason, or an effective cause, is applicable." foundation of legal reasoning and thus fiqh. A type of judgement reached by making analogy. When a judgement cannot be found in the Qur'an orin the Sunnah of Rasoolu'llah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, or from the 'Ijma (universal agreement) of the 'Ulamaa (the people of knowledge from amongst the Muslims), then a Qiyaas is made by comparing the matter being considered to a similar case judged by the Holy Prophet, and thereby arriving at a similar decision, which does not contradict the Qur'an or the Sunnah in any way.

Qiyam (Qiam) to stand, a position of prayer

Qiyamah resurrection; return of the dead for the Day of Judgment .

Qiyamul Lail (Qiamul Lail) Standing in prayer during the night.

Qudah plural form of qadi.

Qudsī  classification of a hadith that are believed to be narrated by Muhammad from Alalh.

Qu'ud Sitting position during Salat.

Qubaa A famous site on the outskirts of AI-Madinah al-Munawwarah. The Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, established the first Masjid of Islam there. It was named AI-Masjid at-Taqwa (The Masjid of Awe) or Al-Masjid Quwatul-Islam (The Masjid of the Power of Islam).According to one Hadith, the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that visiting this Masjid on Saturday before noon and offering a two-Rak'a Salat there is equal (in reward) to doing an Umra. See Qur'an, At-Taubah 9/107-108.

Qulub (sing Qalb) Hearts. Only the remembrance of Allah makes the hearts calm and peaceful.

Qunut Supplication in the Salat, particularly in the standing position after Ruku in the Fajr (dawn) prayer.

Quraysh (KURAYSH) the most powerful and prominent tribe in all of Arabia in the Prophet's era. The Quraysh were the keepers of the Ka'bah and therefore one of the wealthiest and most powerful tribes. The Prophet was from among the Quraysh. When he started to preach the True religion of Allah, the Quraysh violently persecuted him and his followers. They were badly defeated at the battle of Badr by the Muslims and their days of Jahiliyyah were finally ended when the Muslims liberated Mecca and destroyed all the idols in the Ka'bah in the year 630 C.E.

Qur'an (KUR'AN) The holy book of Qur'an is called the Qur'an. It was revealed unto Muhammad (s.a.w) from Allah through angel Gabriel (Jibril) for a period of 23 years. There is only one Qur'an in the whole world and it is in Arabic language. The Qur'an has one text, one language, and one dialect. It has been memorized by millions of Muslims in different parts of the world. The Qur'an is composed of 114 Surah (chapters). It is to be read and recited with rules and regulations. When to be touched and to be recited, a Muslim to be in a state of cleanliness and purity. The authenticity and the totality of the Qur'an have been documented and recognized. The Qur'an can not be translated at all as the Qur'an is the exact words of Allah. Any translation is considered to be the explanation to the meaning of the Qur'an. The Qur'an is so rich and comprehensive in matter that it can easily guide men and women in all works of their life. It is the ultimate source of guidance for people in all aspects of their spiritual and material lives. The names and attributes that are given to the Qur'an in the Qur'an speak for themselves. The Qur'an is also described to be bounteous, glorious, mighty, honored, exalted, purified, wonderful, blessed, and confirming the truth of previous revelations. The Qur'an has practically proved the truth and effectiveness of all of its names and epithets in the life of all true believers, who practiced its teachings sincerely and devoutly. The Qur'an has a Universal appeal, regardless of people's color, creed, nationality, and geographical divisions of the world. The goal of life, as addressed in the Qur'an, is to live according to what Allah has created us for, which is to worship Allah, and to obey his commandments in this life, which are of course, in the interest of people, and to gain going to Heaven and escape going to Hell in the hereafter. The real success is going to Heaven and the real failure is going to Hell, as the Qur'an states. Those who are entirely lost in their material gains and luxury, without cultivating their spiritual and moral qualities, are declared by Allah (s..w.t.) to be like animals, rather worse than them. The ones who do not believe in Allah or follow His commandments are also described in many places of the Qur'an to be dead, deaf, mute, and blind. The real living, hearing, speaking and seeing are caused by the true belief in the heart. So our need for learning, studying, and following the Qur'an should come before our need for breathing, drinking and eating to survive, because life without such guidance is a miserable life that leads to eternal punishment. The "Recitation". Also called AI-Furqaan,"The Discrimination (between truth and falsehood)". The Final Revelation of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to Ins wal-Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself decreed that it is He who will preserve the Qur'an from any deletion or addition or alteration until the Day of Resurrection. It is generally understood that it is a book meant for the Muslims alone. In fact, it is a book for all mankind and jinn to follow up to the Day of Judgement, but it has been accepted only by those who have submitted their will (the Muslims) to Allah the Almighty. The people whom the Qur'an is intended to benefit are described in Suratul-Baqara 2/1-5.They are the successful ones. The Qur'an is the greatest of the Last Messenger's miracles, since he could neither read nor write and had never received any formal education. The Qur'an is the uncreated word of Allah. The Qur'an contains 114 Suwar, composed of 6,616 Ayat, 77,934 words and 323,671 letters.

Qurra (Sing Qari)
1. One who memorizes the Qur' an by heart and recites its constantly.
2. Early religious scholars or teachers.


RA See Radia'llahu 'Anhu.

Rabb has three meanings:
(i) Lord and Master;
(ii) Sustainer, Provider, Supporter, Nourisher and Guardian, and
(iii)Sovereign and Ruler, He who controls and directs.

Allah is Rabb in all the three meanings of the term. The rational of the basic Qur'anic message - 'serve none but Allah' - is that since Alalh is man's Rabb - Lord, Sustainer, Provider, Nourisher, etc. He alone should be the object of man's worship and service. See, for example, Qur'an 2/21.

Rabbak Your Lord. Your Master. See Rabb.

Rabb il 'Alameen Title of Allah Ta'ala. Lord of all creation. Literally means "Lord of the Worlds", both in the Seen and in the Unseen.

Rabbil Al_Awal The third month of the Islamic calendar. See Hijri.

Radiyallahu anha May Allah be pleased with her.

Radiyallahu anhu May Allah be pleased with him.

Radiyallahu anhuma May Allah be pleased with them.

Radiyallahu anhum May Allah be pleased with them.

Radhiallahu 'anhu (RAZHIALLAHU 'ANHU) This is an expression to be used by Muslims whenever a name of a companion of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) is mentioned or used in writing. The meaning of this statement is: "May Allah be pleased with him."
Muslims are taught to be respectful to the elderly and to those who contributed to the spread and success in Islam. They are to be grateful to the companions of the prophet (s.a.w.) for their sacrifices, their leadership, and their contributions. Muslims are advised to use this phrase when such names are mentioned or written.

Rafi'ah Khafida That which will raise the lowly, and humble the proud, on the Day of Judgement.

Rahman Merciful;

Ar-Rahman means "The Most Merciful" Allah.

Rahim compassionate.

Ar-Rahim means "The Most Compassionate" Alalh as in the Basmala "Ar-Raheem". Most Merciful. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. It is said that the Attribute of Ar-Raheem consists of the mercy of Allah that is only experienced by the Muslims, whereas the Attribute of Ar-Rahman consists of the mercy of Allah that is experienced by the whole creation. For example, all creatures are fed until they die, but only the Muslims experience the reward of breaking the fast at the end of each day of Ramadan, and the reward of meeting their Lord in the next world.

Rahib A man who lives in a monastery, a Christian monk.

Rahim (Ar) Blood relations. It is extremely important for Muslims to keep in contact with their blood relatives. In a Hadith Qudsi Allah Ta'ala vowed by His Might and Sublimity that He would cut off the person who cuts off his blood relative.

Rahmat Allah The Mercy of Allah. It comes from one of the Attributes of Allah Ta'ala - Ar-Rahman, The Merciful. See Raheem (ar).

Ra'i Opinion, reason. Ahl al Ra'i - scholars who employ independent reasoning to the solution of new problems, in contradistinction to scholars who confine themselves mainly to hadeeth ( see Ahl al hadeeth).

Raihan A sweet-smelling flower.

Rajfa Violent earthquake. See Qur'an, Al-A'raf 7/155.

Rajab The seventh month of the Islamic calendar. See Hijri.

Rajm the practice of stoning. In Islamic law the Hadd punishment for whoever is married and commits adultery is to be stoned to death.

Ra'ka (Raka'ah) (plur rak'at) an individual unit of salaah. Each daily prayer is made up of a different number of raka'ah.

Rak'at Plural of Rak'a. See Rak'a.

Ramadan (RAMAZAN)  the holy month of prescribed fasting for the Muslims. It was during this month that the Quranic revelations began. The ninth month of the Islamic clendar. It is a very important month in the Islamic world.
1. It is the month of fasting, during which all adult Muslims who are in good health fast from the first light of dawn until sunset each day. During the first third of the fast you taste Allah's mercy; during the second third you taste Allah's forgiveness; and during the last third you taste freedom from the Fire. See Qur' an, Al-Baqara 2/185.
2. It is the month in which the revelation of the Qur' an to our Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commenced.
3. The Lailatul Qadr (see (Qadr, Lailatul) occurs in this month.
4. The famous Battle of Badr was fought and won in this month.
5. The Conquest of Makka by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took place in this month.

Ramal Hastening, walking briskly and moving the shoulders briskly; usually done by men (only) in the first three circuits of the Tawaf, but not in the remaining four.

Rami The act of throwing seven pebbles at each of the three Jamras, representing Iblis (Satan), at Mina. See Jamrat al-'Aqaba.

Rashidun Muslims consider the first four caliphs as the "orthodox" or "rightly guided" caliphs. They were Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and 'Ali.

Rasul (RASOOL) The meaning of the word Rasul is a messenger. Allah sent many prophets and messengers to mankind. Amongst them, the names of twenty-five are mentioned in the Qur'an. From within the list, the Qur'an states the names of five Rasul who are the Mighty ones. These are: Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus), and Muhammad (s.a.w.). messenger; Unlike prophets (Nabi), messengers are given scripture. Moses, David, Jesus and Mohammed are considered messengers. All messengers are considered prophets, but not all prophets are given scripture. See: Nabi.

Rasoolu'llah Messenger of Allah. Throughout the history of the world Allah has sent messengers with a Book to explain Tawheed to man and Jinn, and to show them how to live at peace. The Muslims accept and believe in all the messengers, including the prophets Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Dawood (David), Isa (Jesus), peace be upon them all, and especially Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Mursallen.

Rawi A narrator. In Hadith literature, it means the narrator of Ahadeeth.

Rea' (Shirk Ar) A minor Shirk. Carrying out a religious act for worldly gains and not for the pleasure of Allah, e.g. giving Zakat for the sake of fame or praise. See Shirk.

Riba interest, the charging and paying of which is forbidden by the Qur'an. Usury is of two kinds:
1. Riba Nasi'a - taking interest on loaned money.
2. Riba F'adal - taking something of superior quality in exchange for giving less of the same kind of thing of poorer quality.Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala has strictly forbidden any kind of Riba and has warned of severe punishment to those who have any association with it. This is because all Riba involves getting something for nothing at someone else's expense, and is destructive. See Qur' an, Al-Baqara 2/275-280, Aali imran 3/130.

Rida A cloth that is worn on the upper part of the body.

Riddah apostasy, in which a person abandons Islam for another faith or no faith at all.

Ridwan peace be upon him Name of the angel who is Keeper of the Gate of Jannah (Paradise). Literally means "Allah's Good Pleasure".

Risalah  literally, message or letter. Used both in common parlance for mail correspondences, and in religious context as divine message.

Riwayaat Narrations of Ahadeeth.

Rizq Provision. Sustenance. Derives from the word "AI-Razaq" The Provider or Sustainer, one of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta' ala.

AI-Razaq The Provider or Sustainer, one of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta' ala.

Ruh spirit; the divine breath which God blew into the clay of Adam.

Rooh AL Qudus The Holy Spirit. Another name for the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him. His duty was to communicate between Allah and His prophets. Alah Ta'ala strengthened the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him, with the Holy Spirit Al-Baqara 2/87, 253. This is one of the reasons why the Nasara (Christians) believe that the Prophet Jesus was divine. If Jesus was Allah, then why did he need strengthening? They also believed that the Holy Spirit was divine. If the Holy Spirit was Allah, then how was He sent and by whom? Who has the power to command Allah to go anywhere? Do they not know that Allah is "AI-Wahid", "The Unique"? Glory be to Allah, the Most High. Surely they disbelieve who say that Allah has associates.

Roohu'llah According to the Ulamaa mm as-Sahaba (the people of knowledge from among the companions of the Prophet, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them, and their students), the Roohu'IIah can be considered in two distinct and different ways:
1. The created - what belongs to Allah: e.g. Allah's slave, Allah's House, Allah's soul (i.e. a soul created by Allah). Consider the creation of Adam and the Prophet Isa (Jesus, Son of Mary), peace be on them. Allah said "Be" and they were created.
2. The Creator - Who is neither a person nor a thing: e.g. Allah's statements (Kalimatu'llah), Allah's knowledge ('Ilmu'llah). Allah says in the Qur'an: "Say: 'The Spirit is by command of my Lord, and you have only been given a little knowledge."' (Qur'an, Al-isra 17/85.)

Room (Al) "The Romans". Surah 30 of the Qur' an.

Rububiyah (Tawheed Al) Unity of Lordship. To believe that there is only one Lord, the Master and Creator of the Universe, Who oversees and orders it in every moment, and that is He Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. See Tawheed.

Rukn (plur arkan) means what is inevitable. One of the five pillars of Islam. (See fard, wajib)

Ruku' (RUKU) The root of this word is Raka'a which means bow down; the bowing performed during salat. During prayers (Salah), a Muslim is to make Ruku' in respect to Allah: he or she bows forward at the waist, and stands with the hands on the knees and the back parallel to the ground. While in a position of Ruku' a Muslim is to glorify Allah three times.

Ruqba A gift of a house given to somebody to live in as long as they live, after which it is returned.

Ruqya Divine words, usually from the Qur' an, used as a recitafion to cure an illness or a disease.

Rushd Right conduct and correct behaviour.

Rusull (Sing Rasool) Messengers. All messengers are prophets, but not all prophets are messengers. The Qur'an mentions twenty-five prophets, amongst whom are six messengers:
1. Nooh (Noah).
2. Ibrahim (Abraham).
3. Musa (Moses).
4. Dawood (David).
5. Isa ibn Mariam (Jesus, Son of Mary).
6. Muhammad.
May the blessings and peace of Allah be on all the prophets and messengers, on those who are known and those who are not known, and on all their sincere followers in every age. For a complete list of the twenty-five prophets and messengers: See Mursaleen.

Rutb ripe dates, opposite busr.


Saabia Worshippers of the stars, moons and other heavenly bodies.Originally the people of Sabaa, the Queen of Sheeba.

Sab'a Al_mathani Another name for Surat al-Fatiha. Literally means "The Seven Often Recited Verses". Every Muslim recites Surat al-Fatiha at least seventeen times every day, and some a good deal more.

Sab'a Samawat Seven Heavens.

Sab'a Tuwaal The first seven long Suwar of the Holy Qur'an.

Sab'aa (as) An easterly wind.

Sabaa City of Sheeba in Yemen. A city of the King and Prophet Sulaiman, peace he on him, and the Queen of Sheeba, Bilqis. Surah 34 of the Qur'an. See Qur'an, An-Naml 27/15-44.

1. Road. Path. Way. A means to an end.
2. "Fee Sabeeli'llah": In the path of Allah or in the cause of Allah.

Sabbath which means Saturday, was declared for the Israelites as the holy day of the week. God declared the Sabbath as a sign of the perpetual covenant between God and Israel. (Exodus 31:12-16.) The Israelites were required to strictly keep the Sabbath which meant that they may not engage in any worldly activity; they may not cook, nor make their slaves or cattle serve them. Those who violated these rules were to be put to death. The Israelites, however, publicly violated these rules. For further details, see Surah 7.

Sabiqoon 'Those who outstrip the rest', in the race to draw near to the mercy and blessings and love of Allah. See Muqarraboon.

Sabirin people who are patient and steadfast.

Sabr patience, steadfastness, endurance, self-restraint. Allah Ta'ala has promised "Falaah" (success) in this world and in the Hereafter to those Muslims who have Sabr, especially during times of hardship. See Qur'an, Aali 'Imran 3/200.

Sa'd ibn Mu'az Chief of the Aus tribe, who later came to be known as the Ansar. He died a Shaheed (martyr) as a result of a wound he received in the Battle of Khandaq (also known as the Battle of Al-Ahzab).

Sa'id Blessed in the sight of Allah, as opposed to Shaqi, which means wretched. See Qur'an, Houd 11/105.

Sadaq same meaning as mahr.

Sadaqah means charity; voluntary alms above the amount for zakat.

Sadd al Dharaa'i` Literally, blocking the means. Implies blocking the means to an expected end or an evil which is likely to materialize if the means towards it is not obstructed. For example, illicit privacy between members of the opposite sex is blocked or made unlawful because [of the prohibition of adultery - ed. (missing text)].

Safa a mound near the Ka'bah that is referred to in the Quran as one of the symbols of Allah. It is in conjuction with Marwah.

Safa and Marwah Two hills in Makkah, near the Ka'bah, now included within the grand mosque (see Sa'y)

Safaha "He forgave". Forgiving in the sense of overlooking, ignoring or turning away from misdeeds. See Maghfira.

Saffah A raised platform. A verandah attached to the Prophet's Mosque in Madina where poor Muslims, including some of his most exalted companions, used to sleep, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them.

Saghir (Al) Minor sins committed by Ins wal-Jinn (mankind and Jinn) against Allah Ta'ala.

Sahabah (as-Sahabiyeen) Plural of Sahabi, Companion, particularly any companion of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

A list of the best-known Companions:
•   Aa'rus bin al yushkry أعرس بن عمرواليشكري
•   Aa'yun bin Zuby'aah أعين بن ضبيعة بن ناجية بن عقال
•   Aabi al laham آبي اللحم الغفاري
•   Abaan al abdi أبان العبدي
•   Abaan al muharbi أبان المحاربي
•   Abaan bin Saeed أبان بن سعيد
•   Abbad ibn Bishr
•   `Abdullah ibn `Abd-ul-Asad
•   Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf
•   Abu Hurayrah
•   Abd al-Rahman
•   Abdullah ibn Abbas
•   Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Aas
•   Abdullah ibn Az Zubayr
•   Abdullah bin al Aa'wer الأعشى المازني‘ واسمه عبد الله بن الأعور
•   Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi
•   Abdullah ibn Jahsh
•   Abdullah ibn Mas'ud
•   Abdullah ibn Sailam
•   Abdullah ibn Umar
•   Abdullah ibn Umm Maktum
•   Abjr al mzni أبجر المزني
•   Abu al-Aas ibn al-Rabiah
•   Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
•   Abu Bakr Siddiq
•   Abu Dardaa
•   Abu Musa al-Ashari
•   Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith
•   Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah
•   Abu Dharr al-Ghifari
•   Abyz أبيض
•   Abza al Khuza'e أبزى الخزاعي
•   Abyz bin Hammaal أبيض بن حمال
•   Abyz bin Honey أبيض بن هني
•   Adeem al tughlabi أديم التغلبي
•   Adiyy ibn Hatim
•   Aflah أفلح بن أبي القعيس،وقيل أفلح أبوالقعيس،وقيل أخوأبي القعيس
•   Aflah أفلح مولى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
•   Aflah أفلح مولى أم سلمة
•   Aftus أفطس
•   Ahmar abu Usaib أحمر أبو عسيب
•   Ahmad bin Hafs أحمد بن حفص
•   Ahmar bin Muawia أحمر بن معاوية
•   Ahmar bin Qutn أحمر بن قطن
•   Ahmar bin Saleem أحمر بن سليم
•   Ahmar bin Swa'a أحمر بن سواء
•   Ahmar mola Umm Salmah أحمر مولى أم سلمة
•   Ahmar أحمر بن جزي
•   Ahyah bin Umayyah أحيحة بن أمية
•   Ahzaab bin Usaid أحزاب بن أسيد
•   Aishah bint Abi Bakr
•   Akbar al harithi أكبر الحارثي
•   Akeymah al laythee أكيمة الليثي‘ وقيل الزهري
•   Akhrm al hajimy أخرم الهجيمي
•   Aktal bin Shumakh أكتل بن شماخ بن يزيد
•   Akthum bin Al Jaun أكثم بن الجون‘وقيل ابن أبي الجون،واسمه عبد العزى بن منقذ
•   Akthum bin Saifi أكثم بن صيفي
•   Akthum bin Saifi أكثم بن صيفي بن عبدالعزى بن سعد
•   Akydur bin Abdul Malik أكيدربن عبدالملك
•   Al Aagher al ghifari الأغرالغفاري
•   Al Aagher al muzni الأغرالمزني
•   Al Aagher bin Ysaar الأغربن يسار الجهني
•   Al Aa'shaw al mazini الأعشى المازني‘ واسمه عبد الله بن الأعور
•   Al Aa'wer bin Bishamah الأعور بن بشامة العنبري
•   Al Adra'e al aslami الأدرع الأسلمي
•   Al Adra'e al zumri الأدرع الضمري أبو الجعد
•   Al Aghlab al rajiz الأغلب الراجزالعجلي
•   Al Ahmari الأحمري
•   Al-Ahnaf bin Qays الأحنف بن قيس
•   Al Ahws bin Mas'ud الأحوص بن مسعود
•   Al Akhns bin Khubaab الأخنس بن خباب
•   Al Akhrm al asadi الأخرم الأسدي
•   Al Akhram الأخرم
•   al-'Ala' Al-Hadrami
•   Al Aqmar abu Ali الأقمرأبوعلي وكلثوم الوادعي، يقال إن اسمه عمروبن الحارث
•   Al Aqra'e bin Abdullah الأقرع بن عبدالله الحميري
•   Al Aqra'e bin Habis الأقرع بن حابس بن عقال
•   Al Aqra'e bin Shqey الأقرع بن شفي العكي
•   Al Aqrum bin Zaid الأقرم بن زيدأبوعبدالله الخزاعي
•   Al Arkam al nakha'e الأرقم النخعي،واسمه أوس بن جهيش بن يزيدالنخعي
•   Al Arkam bin abi Al Arkam الأرقم بن أبي الأرقم
•   Al Arkam bin Jufainah الأرقم بن جفينة
•   Al Ashja'e al abdi الأشج العبدي‘ المنذربن الحارث بن زيادبن عصرالعصري
•   Al Aswad al habashi الأسودالحبشي
•   Al Aswad bin abi Al Aswd الأسودبن أبي الأسودالنهدي
•   Al Aswad bin abi Al Bukhtri الأسودبن أبي البختري
•   Al Aswad bin Abas الأسودبن عبس بن أسماءبن وهب
•   Al Aswad bin Abdul Asad الأسودبن عبدالأسد
•   Al Aswad bin Abdullah الأسودبن عبدالله السدوسي اليمامي‘وقيل عبدالله بن الأسود
•   Al Aswad bin Asram الأسودبن أصرم المحاربي
•   Al Aswad bin Halal الأسودبن هلال المحاربي
•   Al Aswad bin Hazim الأسود بن حازم بن صفوان بن عزار
•   Al Aswad bin Imran أسودبن عمران البكري‘وقيل عمران بن الأسود
•   Al Aswad bin Khalf الأسودبن خلف بن عبديغوث القرشي الزهري
•   Al Aswad bin Khitamah الأسودبن خطامةالكناني
•   Al Aswad bin Khuza'e الأسودبن خزاعي‘وقيل خزاعي بن الأسودالسلمي
•   Al Aswad bin Malik الأسودبن مالك الأسدي اليمامي
•   Al Aswad bin Naufal الأسودبن نوفل بن خويلدالقرشي الأسدي
•   Al Aswad bin Rbe'ya الأسودبن ربيعة
•   Al Aswad bin Rbe'ya الأسودبن ربيعة بن أسوداليشكري
•   Al Aswad bin Salmah الأسودبن سلمة الكندي
•   Al Aswad bin Sre'e الأسودبن سريع التميمي السعدي
•   Al Aswad bin Sufian الأسودبن سفيان القرشي المخزومي
•   Al Aswad bin Tha'luba الأسودبن ثعلبةاليربوعي
•   Al Aswad bin Wahab الأسودبن وهب،وقيل وهب بن الأسود
•   Al Aswad bin Zaid الأسودبن زيدالأنصاري
•   Al Aswad walid Aamir bin Al Aswad الأسودوالدعامربن الأسود
•   Al-Baraa ibn Malik al-Ansari
•   Al Asfa'e al bikri الأسفع البكري
•   Al Asqa' bin Shreeh الأسقع بن شريح بن صريم
•   Al Azbat bin Hayye الأضبط بن حيي بن زعل الأكبر
•   Al Azbat al salmi الأضبط السلمي أبو حارثة
•   Ali bin Abi Taleb
•   Amad bin Abad أمدبن أبدالحضرمي
•   Amanaah bin Qays أماناة بن قيس بن الحارث بن شيبان بن الفاتك الكندي
•   Amar bin al Haarith الأقمرأبو علي وكلثوم الوادعي، يقال إن اسمه عمرو بن الحارث
•   Ammar bin Yasir
•   Amr bin Al'aas
•   Amr ibn al-Jamuh
•   An-Nuayman ibn Amr
•   An-Numan ibn Muqarrin
•   Aq'es bin Salmah أقعس بن سلمة‘وقيل مسلمة الحنفي السحيمي
•   Arbd bin Humair أربدبن حميروقيل ابن حزة
•   Arbd bin Mkhshaw - Su'waid bin Mkhshaw أربدبن مخشي وقيل سويدبن مخشي
•   Arbd khadim أربد خادم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
•   As'ad al khair أسعدالخير‘وقيل إنه أبوسعدالخير‘ ويشبه أن يكون اسمه أحمد
•   Artat al tai أرطاة الطائي وقيل أبوأرطاة
•   Artat bin Ka'ab أرطاة بن كعب
•   Artat bin Al Munzir أرطاة بن المنذر
•   As'ad bin Abdullah أسعدبن عبدالله الخزاعي
•   As'ad bin Atiya أسعد بن عطية بن عبيد
•   As'ad bin Haritha bin Lauzaan أسعدبن حارثة بن لوذان الأنصاري الساعدي
•   As'ad bin Sahal أسعدبن سهل بن حنيف
•   As'ad bin Salamah أسعدبن سلامةالأشهلي الأنصاري
•   As'ad bin Yazeed أسعدبن يزيدبن الفاكة
•   As'ad bin Yrhu'e أسعدبن يربوع الأنصاري الخزرجي الساعدي
•   As'ad bin Zrarah أسعد بن زرارة بن عدس
•   As'er أسعر‘وقيل ابن سعر‘وقيل سعر
•   Asad bin akhi Kadija أسدبن أخي خديجة
•   Asad bin Haritha أسدبن حارثة العليمي الكلبي
•   Asad bin Qarz أسدبن كرزبن عامر
•   Asad bin Sa'ya أسدبن سعيةالقرظي
•   Asad bin Ubaid أسدبن عبيدالقرظي اليهودي
•   Asad bin Zrarah أسدبن زرارةالأنصاري
•   Asbgh bin Giyaas or Etaab أصبغ بن غياث،أوعتاب
•   Aseed bin abi Unaas أسيدبن أبي أناس بن زنيم الكناني الدؤلي العدوي
•   Aseed bin abi Usaid أسيدبن أبي أسيد
•   Aseed bin Amar أسيدبن عمرو بن محصن شهدبدراً
•   Aseed bin Jariyah أسيدبن جارية بن أسيد
•   Aseed bin Karz أسيدبن كرزالقسري
•   Aseed bin Sa'ya أسيدبن سعية القرظي
•   Aseed bin Sfwaan أسيدبن صفوان
•   Ash'us bin Qays الأشعث بن قيس بن معدي كرب الكندي
•   Asheem al zbabi أشيم الضبابي
•   Ashmah al njashi أصحمة النجاشي ملك الحبشة
•   Ashrus bin Ghazira أشرس بن غاضرة الكندي
•   Asla'e bin Shreeq أسلع بن شريك الأعوجي التميمي
•   Aslam أسلم
•   Aslam أسلم حادي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
•   Aslam أسلم مولى عمر بن الخطاب
•   Aslam abu Rafa'e أسلم أبو رافع مولى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
•   Aslam al habashi أسلم الحبشي الأسود
•   Aslam al ra'ee أسلم الراعي الأسود
•   Aslam bin Ameera أسلم بن عميرة بن أمية الأنصاري الحارثي شهد أحداً
•   Aslam bin Aus أسلم ابن أوس بن بجرة
•   Aslam bin Al Haseen أسلم بن الحصين بن جبيرة
•   Aslam bin Bjrah أسلم بن بجرة الأنصاري الخزرجي
•   Aslam bin Jubair أسلم بن جبيربن حصين بن جبيرة
•   Aslam bin Saleem أسلم بن سليم
•   Asm'a bin Haritha أسماءبن حارثة بن هند
•   Asm'a bin Rbaan أسماءبن ربان بن معاوية
•   As-hama Al-Najashi
•   Asmaa bint Abi Bakr
•   Asma bint Umays
•   Asmar bin Muzris أسمر بن مضرس الطائي
•   Asram al shiqry أصرم الشقري
•   Asram bin Thabit أصرم، ويقال أصيرم، واسمه عمرو بن ثابت بن وقش الأنصاري الأوسي الأشهلي
•   Aswad أسود، فسماه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أبيض
•   Aswad bin Abyz الأسودبن أبيض
•   Aswad bin Auf أسودبن عوف القرشي الزهري
•   Aswad bin Haraam أسودبن حرام
•   Aswad bin Uwaim أسودبن عويم السدوسي
•   At-Tufayl ibn Amr ad-Dawsi
•   Azaaz Mard أزاذ مرد
•   Azhar bin Abd Auf أزهر بن عبد عوف
•   Azhar bin Munqir أزهر بن منقر
•   Azhar bin Qais أزهر بن قيس
•   Azynah bin Haarith أذينة بن الحارث
•   Barakah
•   Bilal ibn Ribah
•   Anas ibn Malik
•   Dihyah Kalbi
•   Fatimah bint Muhammad
•   Fayruz ad-Daylami
•   Habib ibn Zayd al-Ansari
•   Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib
•   Hakim ibn Hizam
•   Hafsa bint Umar ibn al-Khattab
•   Hasan bin Ali
•   Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman
•   Husayn bin Ali
•   Hatib bin Abi Balta'ah
•   Ibrahim abu Raf'e إبراهيم أبو رافع
•   Ibrahim al ansari إبراهيم الأنصاري
•   Ibrahim al Ashhali إبراهيم الأشهلي
•   Ibrahim al najjar إبراهيم النجار
•   Ibrahim al thaqafi إبراهيم الثقفي
•   Ibrahim ibn Abdullah إبراهيم بن عبد الله
•   Ibrahim ibn Abd ul Rahmaan al Azri إبراهيم بن عبد الرحمن العذري
•   Ibrahim ibn Abd ul Rahmaan al Zohri إبراهيم بن عبد الرحمن الزهري
•   Ibrahim ibn Harith إبراهيم بن الحارث
•   Ibrahim ibn Ibaad إبراهيم بن عباد
•   Ibrahim ibn Khllaad إبراهيم بن خلاد
•   Ibrahim ibn Naeem إبراهيم بن نعيم
•   Ibrahim ibn Qais إبراهيم بن قيس
•   Ibrahim ibn Rasul Allah إبراهيم ابن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
•   Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl
•   Jabir ibn Abdullah al-Ansari
•   Jafar ibn Abi Talib
•   Julaybib
•   Jundub bin Junadah
•   Ka'b ibn Zuhair
•   Khabbab ibn al-Aratt
•   Khalid ibn al-Walid
•   Miqdad ibn Aswad
•   Muadh ibn Jabal
•   Muhammad ibn Maslamah
•   Miqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi
•   Musab ibn Umayr
•   Nuaym ibn Masud
•   Rabiah ibn Kab
•   Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan
•   Rumaysa bint Milhan
•   Sa'sa'a bin Sohan
•   Sad Ibn Abi Waqqas
•   Said ibn Aamir al-Jumahi
•   Said ibn Zayd
•   Salim Mawla Abi Hudhayfah
•   Salman the Persian
•   Salama Abu Hashim (see Salama (town))
•   Suhayb ar-Rumi
•   Suhayl ibn Amr
•   Suraqa bin Malik
•   Shuja bin Wahab al-Asadi
•   Salit bin 'Amr 'Ala bin Hadrami
•   Talhah
•   Tamim Abu Ruqayya (see Bayt Jibrin)
•   Thabit ibn Qays
•   Thumamah ibn Uthal
•   Thameem Ansari
•   Ubayy ibn al Qashab أبي بن القشب
•   Ubayy ibn Ammarah أبي بن عمارة
•   Ubayy ibn Kab ibn Abd Thaur أبي بن كعب بن عبد ثور
•   Ubayy ibn Kab ibn Qais أبي بن كعب بن قيس
•   Ubayy ibn Malik أبي بن مالك
•   Ubayy ibn Muaz أبي بن معاذ
•   Ubayy ibn Shreeq - Akhnus ibn Shreeq أبي بن شريق، ويعرف بالأخنس بن شريق
•   Ubayy ibn Thabit أبي بن ثابت
•   Ubayy ibn Ujlaan أبي بن عجلان
•   Ubayy ibn Umayyah أبي بن أمية
•   Umm Salamah
•   Umar ibn al-Khattab
•   Umayr ibn Sad al-Ansari
•   Umayr ibn Wahb
•   Uqbah ibn Amir
•   'Urwa ibn Zubayr ibn Al-'Awwam
•   Utbah ibn Ghazwan
•   Uthman ibn Affan,Uthman Ghani
•   Uthaal ibn Naumaan أثال بن النعمان
•   Ubada bin As-Samit
•   Zayd al-Khayr
•   Zayd ibn Thabit
•   Zayd bin al-Hareth
•   Zubayr ibn al-Awwam
•   Wahsh

Sahabiyeen (Sing Sahabi) The companions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah he on him and his family and his companions.

Sahih  "Sound in isnad." A technical attribute applied to the "isnad" of a hadith.

Sahih al-Bukhari The title of the books of Hadith compiled by Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari, a Sunni scholar. The collection is described as Sahih (authentic).

Sahih Muslim The title of the books of Hadith compiled by Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, a Sunni scholar. The collection is described as Sahih (authentic).

Sahifah a page or manuscript.

Sahu Literally means forgetting. If one adds to or subtracts from what is required during the Salat (Prayer), out of forgetfulness or lack of attention, then one must perform two extra prostrations at the end of the Salat. This is called Sajda Sahu.

Sa'ir The third level of Hellfire. It is reserved for the worshippers of fire. See Jahanam.

Saiyidina Our Master. This usually refers to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but may also be used when mentioning the name of any prophet of Allah Ta'ala.

Saiyidul Anbiyaa wal Mursaleen "The Master of all Prophets and Apostles". This is the title of Muhammad (saw).

Sajda (As) (Plur Sujud)
1. Prostration. The act of making prostration, particularly in the Salat (Prayer).
2. "The Prostration". Surah 32 of the Qur'an. It is so called because it contains a verse (verse 15) whereby, if one hears it being recited, one must prostrate. There are fifteen such Ayat (verses) in the Qur'an. One should be in Ghusl and in Wudu when in Sajda.

Sajda Sahu See Sahu.

Sakarat Al Maut The 'drunkenness' of death. There are three signs which indicate that the person who is suffering the pangs of death is a believer:
1. Sweating on the forehead.
2. Tears appear in the eyes.
3. The nostrils dilate.
Likewise, the three signs of a disbeliever next to death are:
1. Irregular breathing.
2. Changing colour.
3. Frothing at the mouth.

Sakina  divine "tranquility" or "peace" which descends upon a person when the Qur'an is recited. See Qur'an, At-Taubah 9/26, 40, Al-Fath 48/4, 18, 26.

Salaf (righteous) predecessors/ancestors. In Islam, Salaf is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims. Forebears, predecessors, ancestors. Al Salaf al Saalih - the righteous forebears - refers to the early generations of Muslims including the Sahaabah and the Taabi`oon.

Salafi Literally, "the early years". Salafi is used generally to describe the early generations of the Muslims, particularly the companions of the Messenger of Allah and those who followed them, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them. In the present age the term is sometimes used to describe a Muslim who closely follows the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad and As-Salafiyeen as-Saliheen, the righteous companions of Muhammad.

Salafiyeen as_saliheen (As) All the righteous companions of the Prophet Muhammad who followed the Prophet in all that he did and said, without any deviation or misinterpretation, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them.

Salah (salat Salah SALAAT, SALAAH) is an Arabic word to mean a spiritual relationship and communication between the creature and his Creator. Salah is one of the five pillars of Islam. A special communication (Salah) is to take place five times a day for a Muslim fixed by Allah. There are five daily obligatory prayers in Islam, consisting of fixed sets of standings, bowings, prostrations and sittings in worship to Allah. These are called Rak 'at. The number of Rak'at in each prayer and their timings are:
1. Fajr - dawn - two Rak'at.
2. Duhr - noon - four Rak'at.
3. 'Asr - afternoon - four Rak' at.
4. Maghreb - sunset - three Rak'at.
5. Isha - late evening - four Rak'at.
These five Salat are one of the Arkan of islam. See Arkan. Prescribed communication with, and worship of, Allah, performed under specific conditions, in the manner taught by the Prophet Muhammad pbuh, and recited in the Arabic language. To perform Salah, a Muslim has to have ablution (Wudhu'). He/she should make sure that cleanliness of body, clothing, and place are attained before performing Salah. It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu when doing the Salat. For voluntary Salat: See NafiIah.

Salah is to be performed with mental concentration, verbal communication, vocal recitation, and physical movement to attain the spiritual uplift, peace, harmony, and concord. There is a congregational prayer on Friday noon (Salatul Jumu'ah) with a sermon (Khutbah) to be delivered by a religious leader (Imam) called Khatib.

Salah is not to be confused with prayer; the latter could be interpreted as supplication (Du'a).
• One of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See Jannah.

Salaat al-Istikharah Prayer for guidance is done in conjunction with two rakaahs of supererogatory prayer.

Salatud_duha A Nafl Salat (voluntarily prayer) that is prayed after sunrise and before noon.

Salatul Janaza Funeral prayer. It is permitted to do Salatul Janaza only over the dead bodies of Muslims. This prayer is done in the standing position only, and usually immediately before the burial. It contains four Takbirs:
1. After the first Takbir - read Suratul Fatiha.
2. After the second Takbir - recite any Dua'a for the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but it is preferred to do the Tashahhud (see Tashahhud) and the Salat aI-Ibrahimiya: "AIlahumma salle 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala ale Muhammad kama salaira Ibrahim wa 'ala alee Ibrahim; fill 'alameen innaka hameedun majeed. Allahumma barak 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala alee Muhammad kama barak ta ibrahim wa 'ala alec Ibrahim; fill 'alameen innaka hamidun majeed." ("O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You are Praiseworthy,Glorious. O Allah, give Muhammad blessing and the family of Muhammad, as You gave Ibrahim blessing and the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You are Praiseworthy , Glorious.")
3. After the third Takbir - pray for the deceased person, his or her relatives and the Muslim people in general.
4. After the fourth Takbir - this marks the end of the Salat.Face your right shoulder and say "Assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmarullah" ( "Peace be on you and the Mercy of Allah").

Salatul Shuruq A Nafl Salat of two or four Rak'at that is prayed a short while after sunrise.

Salatul Tasbih A special Nafl Salat of four Rak'at. This Salat involves praising Allah Ta'ala by including "Subhanallah, wal hamdulilah, wa la il laha illallah, wallahu akbar" ("Glory to Allah, and Praise to Allah, and there is no god except Allah and Allah is Greatest") seventy-five times in each Rak'a.

Salat al-Khawf means Prayer in the state of insecurity. For its procedure see Surah al-Nisa 4/102.

Salām peace

Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam ( S.A.W. or S.A.W.S. also P.B.U.H. ) "May Allah bless him and grant him peace." The expression should be used after stating Prophet Muhammad's name. This is an expression that Muslims use whenever the name of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) is mentioned or written. The meaning of it is: "May the blessings and the peace of Allah be upon him (Muhammad). Another expression that is alternatively used is: "Alaihissalatu Wassalam." This expression means: "On Him (Muhammad) are the blessings and the peace of Allah." Allah has ordered Muslims, in the Qur'an, to say such an expression. Muslims are informed that if they proclaim such a statement once, Allah will reward them ten times. See abbreviation: S.A.W. or S.A.W.S. also P.B.U.H.

Salb The belongings of a person killed in battle; e.g. his weapons,horse, motorbike, etc.

Salih Righteous and goodly person, someone who is in the right place at the right time. It may also mean healthy and sound in body and soul. Derived from the root S-L-H meaning to reconcile, to put things in order, signifies behavior that is righteous, just and dignified. 'Amal salih, honorable or righteous action, is often combined in the Qur'an with Iman and made a condition for success in this world, as well as in the Hereafter.

Salman Al_Farsi A famous Persian Muslim who helped to defend Madina from the pagan Quraish tribe in the months of Shawal and Dhu'l-Qa'da in 5AH by suggesting that the Muslims dig a trench around the unprotected parts. This battle came to be known as the Battle of the Khandaq (Trench), or the Battle of AI-Ahzab (the Clans). See Qur'an, Al-Ahzab 33/9-22. Prior to his accepting Islam, Salman al-Farisi had first embraced Judaism and then Christianity. He spent his life in the search for knowledge and found it with the Prophet whose coming he had learned about from the Jews and the Christians of that time,Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him.

Salsabil A fountain in Jannah (al-firdaus). Literally means "seek the way". See Qur'an, Al-insan 76/18.

Salsabeel peace be upon him Name of the special angel who takes the souls of the Mu'minoon (the believers) wrapped in silk through the Seven Heavens and presents them to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala before returning them to their bodies before they are placed in their graves.

Samaa (Plur Samawat) Heaven. In the sense of 'sky'. "Sab'a Samawat" - Seven Heavens.

Samad (As) Does not have an exact meaning in English. The closest word or words that indicate the meaning are:
1. "Absolute" and "Eternal" and "Everlasting".
2. The One to Whom all created beings turn to for all their needs, and Who is not dependent on anything or anyone for any need.
3. The Most Perfect in His Attributes. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala.

Samawat (Sing Samaa) Heavens. "Sab'a Samawat" - Seven Heavens.

Saqar The fourth level of the Nar (Hellfire). This is where the atheists will be sent on the Day of Judgement.

Saqifah a shelter with a roof. The companions of the Prophet met in a Saqifah in Madinah to pledge their loyalty to Abu Bakr after the death of the Prophet.

Sariya A small army sent by the prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for a Jihad in which he did not personally take part.

S.A.A.S. (S.A.W.S.) These letters are abbreviations for the words "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam", which means: may the blessing and the peace of Allah be upon him. When the name of Prophet Muhammad is mentioned, a Muslim is to respect him and invoke this statement of peace upon him.

Sawm (Siyam) is to mean total abstinence of food and liquid fro dawn to sunset for one whole lunar month. For those who are married, they are to abstain from sexual relations during that time too.  Sawm (Fasting) takes place during the ninth month of the lunar calendar called Ramadhan. Sawm is one of the five pillars of Islam.  Total fasting is also a training process to attain self-restraint, self-control, self-discipline, self-obedience, self-education, and self-evaluation. Few people are excused from fasting during Ramadhan. Some are required to make up later for the days they did not fast such as the travelers (over 50 miles by any means), sick, pregnant women, women nursing babies, and women during their periods. Other excused people are required to feed a poor person one meal for each day they do not fast if they can afford it, such as the elderly people and the ones who have permanent diseases like ulcers. Fasting from just before dawn until sunset. Abstinence is required from all food and drink (including water) as well as smoking and conjugal relations. The word sawm is derived from Syriac sawmo.

Sawa  awakening, revival

S.A.W. (S.A.W.S.)  Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (صلى الله عليه و سلم). See P.B.U.H.

Sayyid leader or chief. master or a descendant of a relative of Muhammad [upon whom be peace], usually a title given to a descendant who comes from Hussayn.

Saydd Hunting for game. In Islam it is permitted to hunt game,provided that the hunting and killing of the game is done within the Shari'ah law. Saydd is prohibited within the sacred precincts of the Haramain. See Qur'an, Al-Maida 5/97-99.

Sa'yee (Sa'y) the going back and forth seven times between Safa and Marwah that is done during the Hajj or the Umrah. It is done to symbolize Hajar's search for water for her son Ismael.

Seeaam  Fasting, from food and drink - and from sexual intercourse if you are married during daylight, from the first light of dawn until sunset. Also spelled as Saum. Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the Arkan (five pillars) of Islam. Allah Ta' ala has made it obligatory on every Muslim whether man or woman, with the exception of:
1.   A person who is ill.
2.   A person on ajourney of 16 Farsakhs (48 miles) or more.
3.   A woman who is menstruating or who has just given birth. Once these situations no longer apply, the missed days must be compensated. The very young are exempted.The aged should fast, but if they find it difficult then they too are exempted and may feed poor people instead. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):184-185, 187.

Sema refer to some of the ceremonies used by various sufi orders

Sha`a'ir Allah refer to all those rites which, in opposition to polytheism and outright disbelief and atheism, are the characteristic symbols of exclusive devotion to God.

Sha'ban The eighth of Islamic calender. SeeHijri

Shaam The territory north of Arabia which is now divided into Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan.

Shafaa'a Intercession. On the Day of Judgement Allah Ta'ala, through His Grace and Mercy, will permit the Prophet Muhammad may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to intercede on behalf of the Muslim Ummah. Three other groups may also be given leave to intercede:
1. The Anbiyaa - the prophets.
2. The Ulamaa - the people of knowledge from amongst the Muslims.
3. The Shuhadaa - the martyrs who died in the cause of Allah Ta'ala.

Shahadah declaration of faith. A person must recite the shahadah to convert to Islam. The shahadah in Islam is:: "I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." The testimony of faith: La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammadun rasulullah. ("There is no god but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."). Sunnis regard this as the first Pillar of Islam. Also may be used as a synonym for the term Istish'hād meaning martyrdom. To witness, in this world. See Shahadatain. Singular of Shahadatain.
To bear witness, on the Day of Judgement. There will be four witnesses on Yaum al-Hisab (the Day of Reckoning):
1. The Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Muslim Ummah against all the other Ummahs (communities and nations).
2. The earth and the day and the night will be given the power to speak and bear witness.
3. Everyone's limbs will bear witness for or against theirowners.
4. One's deeds.

Shahadatain Bearing witness. In order to become a Muslim one must utter and believe in two Shahadas (Shahadatian): First Shahada: Ashhadu an la illaha iII'allah. (I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.) Second Shahada: Ashhadu anna Muhammadar rasoolullah. (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) The Shahadatain is the gateway to Islam and the gateway to the Garden. It is easy to say, but to act on it is a vast undertaking which has far-reaching consequences, in both inward awareness and outward action, in this world and in the next world. Continual affirmation of the Shahadatain is one of the Arkan of Islam. See Arkan.

Shahawat Desires and passions.

Shaheed (pl shuhada) witness, martyr. Usually refers to a person killed whilst fighting in "jihad fee sybil Allah" (jihad for the sake of Allah). A martyr. Someone who dies in the way of Allah.

Shahid means a witness or martyr.

Shaikh (SHEIKH) The word Shaikh is a title or a nickname for an elderly person or a religious leader in a community. This title is also given to a wise person. The meaning of the word Shaikh has been distorted, misused, and abused by some mass media to reflect the wrong meanings.

Shaitan (SHAITAAN) (plur Shayatin)Satan is the source of evil in the world. He always tries to misguide and mislead people. The Qur'an states that Satan is not an angel but a member of the Jinn. The Devil; also known as Iblis. When Allah created Adam, He ordered the angels as well as Iblis to prostrate for Adam. They all obeyed the order of Allah except Iblis. His argument was that Allah created Adam from clay and Iblis from the flame of fire. Accordingly, Iblis thought that he was better than Adam. Hence, Allah told him that he will dwell in Hell. Iblis asked Allah for a postponement until the hereafter. Allah granted his request. Iblis swore that he would mislead and misguide all the people except those sincere and devoted worshipers of Allah. Allah told him that only the misguided ones would follow him and that He would fill Hell with him and his followers.

Shari'ah (SHARIAH) The root of this word is Shara'a; and some other names of it are Shar', Shir'ah and Tashri'. The Shari'ah is the revealed and the canonical laws of the religion of Islam. The legislative power in the government lies in the hands of legislative assembly. The legislators are to make rules and regulations within the scope and dimensions of the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (s.a.w.). These rules constitute the Shari'ah. "the path to a watering hole"; the eternal ethical code and moral code based on the Qur'an and Sunnah; basis of fiqh

Sharīf a title bestowed upon the descendants of Muhammad through Hasan, son of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib

Shajara (ash) A famous place near Madinah on the way to Makkah.

Shakk wa Zann (Kufr Ash) A major disbelief. Doubting any or all of the six articles of faith (see 'Aqaaid). See Kufr.

Shaqi Wretched in the sight of Allah Ta'ala, as opposed to Sai'd, which means blessed in the sight of Allah. See Qur'an, Houd 11/105.

Shawal Tenth month of the Islamic calendar. See Hijri.

Shayateen Devils. Plural of Shaitan.

Shighar A type of marriage which is forbidden where persons exchange daughters or sisters in marriage without giving Mahr (dowry).

Shirk associating partners with Allah. Shirk can also encompase any object that a person may hold in regard higher than Allah. It is the most severe of sins and will not be forgiven. Opposite of Tawheed. To associate anyone or anything with Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. Shirk is idol-worship. Idol-worship means attributing form to Allah, encasing Him in an object, a concept, a ritual or a myth - when Allah has no form, is not like anything and cannot be conceived of or perceived. Allah the Most Merciful is prepared to forgive any sin a man or Jinn may commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. There are three types of Shirk:
1. Shirk al-Akbar (major Shirk). This is divided into four categories:
o Shirk ad-Du'a : invoking or supplicating to a false deity besides Allah Ta'ala, i.e. invocation or supplication by either invoking other than Allah or invoking Him through a created being or thing, such as a prophet, an angel, a saint, or even a bank manager.
o Shirk al-Niyyah wa Iraada wal Qasd : having the intention and determination to deliberately do any type of act of worship to a deity other than Allah Ta'ala.
o Shirk at-Ta'a: obeying any created being against the command of Allah Ta'ala. Beware of such Shirk! It is very easy to commit.
o Shirk al-Muhabbah: loving a created being or an object more than Allah Ta'ala.
2. Shirk aI-Asghar (minor Shirk):
o Shirk ar-Rea':carrying out a religious act for worldly gains and not for the pleasure of Allah, e.g. giving Zakat for the sake of fame or praise.
o Shirk at-Tasmee': swearing by other than Allah, and accordingly relying on other than Allah, or attaching more importance to other than Allah.
3. Shirk aI-Khafy (hidden Shirk):heing dissatisfied with what Allah has ordained for a panicular person. Hidden Shirk is to inwardly worship anything or anyone other than Allah, or to inwardly associate something or someone as a partner with Him, especially one's self.

Shiqaaq Discord, schism, breach.

Shuhadaa (Sing Shaheed) Persons who die Fee Sabeeli'IIah (in the path of Allah). See Shaheed. Allah has designated eight things for the Shuhadaa alone:
1. They are the first to be forgiven.
2. They are the first to see their place in Jannah (Paradise)
3. They are exempted from 'Adhabul-Qabr (trials and tribulations in the grave).
4. They will be exempted from fear on the Day of Resurrection.
5. They will be crowned with the "Taj al-Waqar" (literally means "the crown of respect") on that Day.
6. They will each be married to seventy-two "Houri'een"(see Hooriah).
7. They will each be given permission to intercede on behalf of seventy-two of their relatives.
8. The sweetness of Iman will physically glow from within them.

Shura Consultation. Consultation of the people in the management of religious and worldly affairs. A duty prescribed in the Qur'an to leaders at all levels, from family to government. Majlis ash-shūrā advisory council in a Caliphate

Siddiq (Siddiqeen) The sincere and truthful. The first and foremost followers of the prophets of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on them. See Qur'an, An-Nisaa 4/69.

Sidr Lotus tree.

Sidrat al-Muntaha a lotus tree that marks the end of the seventh heaven, the boundary where no creation can pass.

1. A place in Syria where in 36AH, a famous battle between the followers of Ali, the Khalifa, and the followers supporting the claims of Mu'awiya Ibn Abi Sufyan took place by the River Euphrates, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on whoever follows right guidance.
2. A place near Al-Madinah al-Munawwarah.

Sijjin Comes from the root word 'Sijn', which means 'prison'. Its exact nature is known to Allah Ta'ala alone. All that is revealed to us is that it is where the record of the evil doer is recorded; in contrast, the record of the righteous is kept in Illyoun. See Qur'an, Al-Mutafifeen 83/7-9.

Sin al-bulugh This is the age of maturity and puberty. It is the age at which the Muslims are considered an adult and becomes accountable for his/her duties in Islam. There is no fixed age for that in terms of years and it is decided by three signs: having a menstruation, period or pregnancy for girls, and being physically mature or having a wet dream for boys, growing pubic hair, or reaching the age of fifteen, whichever comes first.

Sin at-tamyiz This is the age of distinguishing. This age is used in Fiqh to decide the age before which the mother has the right to keep the child after divorce. It varies from one person to another. The age is reached when the child can take care of himself or herself and no longer needs an adult to help him eat, get dressed, and clean himself or herself. In the school of thought of Abu Hanifah, it is seven years for the boy and nine years for the girl. The girl is given longer time so that she can learn more of the habits of women.

Sirah (SEERAH) The writings of the companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.) about him, his personality, his life story. and his ways of handling different situations is called Sirah. The famous collections of the Sirah are At-Tabari, Ibn Ishaq, and Ibn Hisham. The Sirah is a source of reference that Muslims rely on in their daily life situations and problems. Life or biography of the Prophet Muhammad; his moral example - with hadith this comprises the sunnah.

Siraat (As) Literally means "road". It is the bridge over the Nar (Hellfire) which must be crossed to enter the Garden on the Day of Judgement. It is described in Ahadeeth as being narrower than the blade of a sword, thinner than a hair and as having hooks over it to snatch wrongdoers and throw them into Jahanam.Some will cross the Siraat into the Garden like lightning or like the wind, some with ease, some with difficulty, some with great difficulty and some will fall into the waiting Fire below. See Qur' an, Mariam 19/71.

Sirat al-Mustaqim  the Straight Path

Sirq Theft. One of the Kabair (major sins) in Islam. Allah Ta'ala has ordained that the hand that steals be severed, under certain circumstances.

Sirri Quiet recitation of the Qur'an during Salat, as in the Duhr and 'Asr Salat (prayers).

Sirwal long under garment worn by the Arabs.

Siwak a piece of a branch or root of a tree that is used as a toothbrush. Also called a miswak.

Soht Ill-gotten property or money. Forcing someone to part with their goods or money through theft, coercion, embezzlement, usury or by any other means that will incur the wrath of Allah.

Subhah String of beads used to count recitations in worship by sufis.

Subhanahu wa ta'ala (S.W.T.)   "May He be Glorified and Exalted." One of the many ways of glorifying Allah the Almighty. It means "Glory be to Allah on High. Far removed is He from any imperfection". The shortened form of this glorification is "Allah T


Taweel Interpretation. Especially interpretation of the Qur'an

Ta'a Obedience to Allah and performing good deeds.

Ta'a (Shirk Al) A major Shirk. Obeying any created being against the command of Allah. Beware of such Shirk! It is very easy to commit. See Shirk.

Ta'aam Feeding the poor and the hungry.

Taybaa Another name for Madinah.

Taba'īn (Tab'e) (Plur Tabi'een) followers of the Sahabah. A Muslim who has seen or met a Sahabi (a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his companions and all who follow him and them in what they are able, with sincerity, until the Last Day).

Tabi'een Plural of Tab'e. See Tab'e.

Tabuk A famous town 400 miles north of Madinah al-Munawarah close to Shaam. In 9AH the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hearing that the Byzantines were gathering a large army to march against the Muslims, led a large expedition to Tabuk, on what was to be his last campaign, only to find that the Byzantine army had withdrawn back into its own territory.

Tafsir (Tafseer) exegesis, particularly such commentary on the Qur'an A commentary. There are several reliable Tafsirs on the meanings of the Ayaat of the Qur'an, including those of Ibn Kathir, Tabari and Al-Qurtubi.

Taghut (taghout) impurity; anything worshipped other than God, i.e. all the false deities. literally denotes the one who exceeds his legitimate limits. In Qur'anic terminology it refers to the creature who exceeds the limits of his creatureliness and abrogates to himself godhead and lordship. In the negative scale of values, the first stage of man's error is fisq (i.e. disobeying God without necessarily denying that one should obey Him.) The second stage is that of kufr, (i.e. rejection of the very idea that one ought to obey God.) The last stage is that man not only rebels against God but also imposes his rebellious will on others. All those who reach this stage are taghut.

Tahajjud nafl voluntary prayer is an optional prayer that is supposed to be performed in the middle of the night. It is required that a person sleep a little before he gets up for the Tahajjud prayer. It can be performed anytime between Isha and Fajr.

Tahara Purification. Tahara is accomplished in a variety of ways, e.g.:
1. Souls. In order for the soul to be pure one must submit one's whole self to Allah Ta'ala, i.e. become a Muslim.
2. Bodies. They are purified through Tayammum, Wudu or Ghusl, depending on the circumstances. For a full explanation: See Tayammum, Wudu and Ghusl.
3. Clothing. Three things indicate that clothes may be impure and need washing:
o If they smell.
o If they are wet and the cause of the wetness is either unknown or known to be impure or dirty.
o If they are stained.
purification from ritual impurities by means of wudu or ghusl

Tahir Pure, ritually clean, unsoiled. See Tahara.

Tahmeed Reciting the words of praise to Allah Ta'ala, i.e. saying "Al-hamdu lilahe Rabbil 'alameen" ("Praise be to Allah the Lord of the Worlds").

Tahqiq Recitation of the Qur'an in a very slow manner. This method is used only when one is learning or teaching Tajweed.

Tahnik Chewing a date then putting the juice into the mouth of a child. Sahih Bukhari, Book of Aqiqa, p.272, Vol.7.

Tahreem (Al) "The Banning". Surah 66 of the Qur' an.

Taḥrīf corruption, forgery. Muslims believe the Bible Scriptures were corrupted but the Qur'an is in its original form.

Taif A city fifty miles east of Makkah, where the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to preach after being rejected, beaten and nearly killed by the pagan Quraish of Makkah in the second year before Hijra. There too he suffered beatings and humiliation. On his return journey to Makkah, Allah Ta'ala revealed to him that although the people of Taif had rejected him, the Jinn had accepted him. It was then that Surarul Jinn (Surah 72) was revealed to him.

Tajdīd to purify and reform society in order to move it toward greater equity and justice

Tajdif  blasphemy

Tajweed It is a saying or an act of reciting Al-Qur'an in accordance with the established rules of Nutq, pronunciation and intonations, such as tafkheem, velarization, Ghunnah, chanting, and Iqlaab, transposition. a special manner of reciting the Qur'an according to prescribed rules of pronunciation and intonation.

Takbīr a proclamation of the greatness of Allah; a Muslim invocation. Saying "Allahu Akbar!" Recited during salah, Id and other celebrations.

Takdir  fate, predestination

Takfir is a practice of declaration of individual or group of previously considered Muslim as kaffir.

Taktheeb (Kufr Al) A major disbelief. It is denying the Divine Truth. See Kufr

Takweer (At) "The Overthrowing". Surah 81 of the Qur'an.

Talaq "The Divorce". Surah 65 of the Qur'an.

Talbiyah The call that the pilgrims make to their Lord on the Hajj, saying:
"Labbaik, labbaik, Allahumma labbaik." ("I am totally at Your service, I am totally at Your service, O Allah I am totally at Your service.")
"La shareeka laka labbaik." ("You have no partner, I am totally at Your service.")
"Innal hamda wa n'imata laka wal mulk." ("Truly, the praise and the blessing are Yours, and the dominion.")
"La shareeka lak." ("You have no partners.")

Talut King Saul. He led his army against the army of Jalut (Goliath). See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/247-249.

Tam' Avarice, greed.

Tamr means dates in Arabic language.

Tan'im The place where Makkans put on their Ihram to perform an Umra or the Hajj. It is a place just on the northern outskirts of Makkah. See Miqat

Tamatu' (Hajj Al) "Interrupted Hajj". Umra, followed by Hajj, but taking off the Ihram in between these two stages. See Hajj.

Tamaninat   to be motionless

Taqlīd (taqleed) to blindly follow a person whose following is not based on proof and does not rely upon knowledge. Garlanding sacrificial animals, especially during the Hajj. In reference to Fiqh, it means the following of previous authorities and the avoidance of Ijtihad. Uncritical adoption or imitation of a particular scholar or school of thought (madhhab).

Taqiyya the mostly Shi'a principle that one is allowed to hide one's true beliefs in certain circumstances.

Taqwa  righteousness; goodness; Piety: Taqwa is taken from the verbe Ittaqua, witch means Avoiding, Fearing the punishment from Allah for committing sins. It is piety obtained by fearing the punishment of Allah. Fear of Allah, being careful, knowing your place in the cosmos. Its proof is the experience of awe, of Allah, which inspires a person to be on guard against wrong action and eager for actions pleasing to Allah. Fearing Allah as He should be feared is one of the major signs of being a faithful Muslim. Piety and restraint (through Taqwa) in times of hardship are signs of having achieved the essence and spirit of Islam, and thus Allah's blessing. See Qur'an, Aali 'Imran 3/102-103, Al-Hashr 59/18-19. the love and fear that a Muslim feels for Allah. A person with taqwa desires to be in the good pleasures of Allah and to stay away from those things that would displease Allah. He is careful not to go beyond the bouds and limits set by Allah.

Taqwim Mould, shape, form, etc. Allah Ta'ala created man in the best of forms, but then abased him to the lowest of the low. See  Qur 'an, At-Teen 95/4-5.

Taraweeh (Tarawih) Nafl Salat (prayers) that are done after Isha Salat during the month of Ramadan, in order to recite the Qur'an as fully as possible, or completely. They are usually done in congregation,but may also be done individually.

Tariq (Al) "The Night Visitant". Surah 86 of the Qur'an.

Tarkīb the study of Arabic grammar issued from the Qur'an

Tarīqah a sufistic order.

Tarteel (Tartīl) Slow and measured (meditative) recitation of the Qur'an taking extreme care with regard to the rules of slow reading, pausing and stopping at every indicated point. Chanting Al-Qur'an; the Prophet has recommended it saying: "Whoever does not chant the Qur'an is not among us". (Abudaawuud).

Tarwiya The start of the Hajj. The 8th of Dhu'l-Hijjah when the Hujjaj leave Macca and set out to Mina.

Tasbihat Reciting the following: "Subhanallah" ("Glory be to Allah") - 33 times, "Alhamdu LilIah" ("Praise be to Allah") - 33 times, and "Allahu Akbar" ("Allah is the Greatest") - 33 times followed by the Shahadatain once, after the end of each obligatory prayer.

Tasdeeq Affirmation.

Tashahhud Reciting the following silently while one is in Qu'ud (i.e. the sitting position) during Salat: "Attahiyatu lillahe wa salawatu tayibat. Assalamu 'alaika ya aiuhan nabiu wa rahmatullahe wa barakatuhu. Wa assalamu 'alaina wa 'ala 'ibadillahe saleheen. Ashadu an Ia illaha illal lah. Wa ashadu anna Muhammadar rasoolu' llah." ("Greetings are for Allah and all prayers and all good. Peace be on you 0 Prophet and the Mercy of Allah and His blessing. Peace be on us and on the right-acting slaves of Allah. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of , recitation of the Tashahhud is followed by recitation of Salat al-Ibrahimiya. See Salatul-Janaza.

Tashkīl vocalization of a text, for example the Qur'an

Tashreeq (Al) The 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhu'l-Hijjah. These form part of the Eid aI-Adha. On these days the sacrificial animals are slaughtered and eaten and the Jamras are stoned by the pilgrims. Since these are days of feasting, it is not permitted to fast during them. [Ayyam] al-Tashriq This term signifies four days of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah, viz. 10th through 13th.

Tasleem (Taslim) The Muslims' greeting; salutation at the end of prayer. The action of turning one's face to the right and saying "Assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah" ('Peace be on you and the Mercy of Allah") and turning one's face to the left and repeating the same words, ends every Salat (Prayer).

Tasneem Name of a fountain in Jannah (Paradise) whose drink is superior to the purest of wines. Its nectar will only be drunk by those near est to Allah Ta'ala. Literally means "rich and elevated". See Qur' an, Al-Mutafifeen 83/27-28.

Tatbeer Shia Ashura ceremony of self-flagellation by hitting head with sword. (See zinjeer)

Tauhid TAUHEED confirming the Oneness of Allah. It is the basis of Islam. See tawhid

Tawassul asking Allah Almighty through the medium and intercession of another person.

Tawbah  (Taubah) repentance
1. Returning to correct action after error, turning away from wrong action to Allah and asking His Forgiveness, turning to face Allah whereas before one turned one's back.
2. Name of one of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See Jannah.
3. "Repentance". Another name for Al-Baraah. Surah 9 of the Qur' an.

Tasawwuf (Sufism) see sufism

Tawaf the circumfering of the Ka'bah seven times. People usually do this during Umrah or Hajj. Tawaf is done in sets of seven circuits, after each of which it is necessary to pray two Rak'at, preferably at or near the Maqaam al-Ibrahim. See Tawaf al-Ifada.
Tawaf Al Ifadah The Tawaf of the Ka'aba by the Hujjaj (pilgrims) after they come from Mina to Makka on the 10th of Dhu'l-Hijjah. This Tawaf is one of the Rukn (essential rites) of the Hajj. See Tawaf.

Tawaf Al Qudum The 'Tawaf on Arrival', the Tawaf of the Ka'aba that the pilgrim must do on first entering the Haram in Makka. It is one of the essential rites of both the Hajj and an Umra.

Tawaf Al Widaa The 'Tawaf of Farewell'. The Tawaf of the Holy Ka'aba that every visitor to Makka should do before leaving Makkah. It should be connected directly to the trip of departure, and whoever is delayed and stays on afterwards should do it again.See Tawaf.

Tawakul'ala'llah Putting one's complete faith in and reliance on Allah Ta'ala and no-one else. Depending on Allah Ta'ala in every aspect of one's life is the mark of a true believer.

Tawhīd (Al-Tawheed) monotheism; affirmation of the Oneness of Allah. Muslims regard this as the first part of the Pillar of Islam, the second part is accepting Muhammad as rasoul (messenger). The opposite of Tawheed is shirk  The Divine Unity, Unity in its most profound sense. Allah is One in His Essence and His Attributes and His Acts. The whole universe and what it contains is One unified event which in itself has no lasting reality. Allah is the Real, AI-Haqq. Although Allah is indivisible and beyond conception, Tawheed can be viewed from four distinct perspectives:
1. Tawheed aI-Rububiyah : Unity of Lordship. To perceive that there is only one Lord, the Master and Creator of the Universe, Who oversees and orders it in every moment, and that He is Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.
2. Tawheed aI-Uluhiyah : Unity of Worship. To realise that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah "Wahdahu Ia shareeka'lah" ("Alone without partner").
3. Tawheed al-Asma wa Sifaat : Unity of Names and Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. To comprehend that:
o None can qualify or name Allah except as He or Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, have named or qualified Him.
o None can be named or qualified with the Names or the Attributes that belong only to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. For example, none maybe called "AI-Muhyee" ("the Giver of Life") except Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself.
o We must accept all the Ayat and Ahadeeth (Sahih)regarding the Attributes of Allah without altering their meaning in any way whatsoever. For a full list of the Attributes of Allah Ta'ala.
4. Tawheed al-Itabaa : Unity in following the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. To believe in and recite the words "Ashadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah" ("I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah") and to follow the way of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, as much as one is able, in life and worship. It is only by following the way of Islam that the true nature of Tawhid becomes apparent.
Another name for Suratul Ikhlas.

Ta'weel Interpretation or explanation. Sometimes used synonymously with tafseer. Often used in the Qur'an in the sense of `final meaning,' `inner meaning' or `real meaning' of a happening or statement or thing as distinct from its outward appearance. Absolute knowledge or what a thing or event implies rests with God alone - "none except God knows its final meaning - ta'weel" (3/7).

Tayammum Purification for prayer using clean dust, earth or stone, when water for Ghusl or Wudu is either unavailable or would be detrimentalto health. Strike the hands lightly on some clean earth, or rub the stone with the palms of the hands, blow off any dust, then wipe over the face, the hands and forearms. Tayammum is broken by the same things that break Wudu. See Wudu.

Thawab reward of blessing. Reward for good deeds that is tallied on qiyamah (judgment day.) Opposite of ithim. Spiritual reward given by Allah Ta'ala to good deeds performed by man and Jinn.

Tawrah (Torah) the Revelation that Allah sent down to Moses. It is the Jewish Holy Book. the uncorrupted form of the Torah revealed to Musa (Moses.)

Tayyib   all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc. Means "pure." The Shahaddath is tayyib.

Ta'zeer   Discretionary punishment - a sentence or punishment whose measure is not fixed by the Shari'ah. (See hudud, qisas)

Tazkiyah  Purification of the Soul.

Teen "The Fig". Surah 95 of the Qur' an.

Thamud Successors to the people of 'Ad. They lived in north-western Arabia between what is now known as Madinah and Syria. Their prophet was Saleh (peace be on him). Allah Ta'ala destroyed them with an earthquake. See Qur' an, Al-A'raf 7/73-79, Hud 11/61-68, Ash-Shu'araa 26/141-159, An-Naml 27/45-53, Az-Zariyat 51/43-45, Al-Qamar 54/23-31.

Thaur A famous cave three miles from Makkah where Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, hid for three nights whilst the Quraish searched for them in vain. See Qur' an, At-Taubah 9/40.

1. "Then", in the sense of"what happens next". There are four words that indicate the proximity of what is to follow next:
o Wa = and. Indicates that what is to follow will be almost immediately afterwards.
o Fa = then. Indicates that what is to follow will be relatively soon afterwards. E.g. "Idha ja anasrullahi wa'l-fath. Wa ra-aita nasa yadkhulouna fi deeni'lahi afwaja. Fa sabbih bi hamdi rabbika wa staghfirh; innahu kana tawwaba." (An-Nasr (11O)):("When the help of Allah and victory come, and you see people entering the Deen of Allah in large numbers, then celebrate the praise of your Lord and seek His forgiveness; surely He is always ready to show mercy.") Where "and" is used, the events or actions linked by "wa" are virtually simultaneous. Where "then" is used, there is a little space of time between what happens before and after "fa", i.e. only after you see people embrace the religion of Allah THEN celebrate the praise of your Lord AND seek forgiveness.... Here, praise is to be immediately followed by seeking forgiveness.
o Thumma = then. Indicates that what is to follow will come later. E.g. "Thumma stawa 'ala'l 'arsh..." (Yunus (1O):3):"Then He established Himself on the Throne...." After creating the heavens and the earth in six 'days' (and a 'day' with Allah can be at least fifty thousand years of 'our' time), He then established Himself firmly on the Throne. Here the time lapse is six periods of time. See'Arsh.
o Saufa = not until then. Indicates that what is to follow will only occur after certain future events have occurred.E.g. "Kalla saufa ta'lamoon" (Ar-Takathur (102):3)("Certainly then you shall know"). It is only when you die that you really find out. It will not be until then that you will come to know.
2. "Then", used to emphasize a point. E.g. "Thumma kalla saufa ta'lamoon." (Ar-Takathur (102):4): ("Certainly THEN you will know.") This is only a meagre explanation of a single word. The Holy Qur'an has 77,934 words and every word has a depth which even an ocean cannot reach.What a miracle, and yet the unbelievers say that this book is not from Allah! How they delude themselves!

Tilawa (Tilawat) This word has a variety of meanings, depending on the context:
1. Studying the Qur'an in order to understand it in the way it should be understood. See Al-Baqara 2/121.
2. Meditating and reflecting on the Qur'an's meanings in order to enrich one's life and knowledge.
3. Reading and reciting the Qur'an by oneself.
4. Reading and reciting and conveying its meanings to others.
5. Approaching and acting on the Qur'an in such a way that it becomes part of one's inner self, thus helping one to attain perfect prayer and to avoid any form of evil or shameful deeds and to be an upright person in the sight of Allah Ta'ala. See Qur'an, Al -'Ankaboot 29/45. ritual recitation of passages of the Qur'an.

Torah  It is the Revelation that Allah sent down to Moses. It is the Jewish Holy Book  See Tawrah

Toor "The Mount". Toori Sineen is the original name for Mount Sinai, on which the Prophet Musa (Moses) received the revelation of the Torah from Allah. Surah 52 of the Qur' an.

Tulaqaa The people who embraced Islam on the day of the conquest of Makkah by the Prophet and his companions, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them, in 8AH.


Uhud A mountain just outside Madina, much loved by the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at the foot of which the Muslims fought their second major battle against the pagan Qur'aish of Makka in 3AH. The Qur'aish army of 3,000 men, under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, attacked the Muslim army of about 700-1,000 men. The battle went well at first, but the Muslims nearly lost the battle for two reasons. Firstly, some fifty archers disobeyed the Prophet Muhammad and left their posts, leaving the Muslims open to an attack from their rear; and secondly, there was treachery on the part of some 300 Munafiqeen (hypocrites) led by 'Abdallah ibn Ubai, who deserted the Muslims during the battle. Many great companions, and in panicular the uncle of the Prophet, Hamza, 'the lion of Allah', were killed in this battle. See Bani Nadheer. See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Imran 3/121-128, 140- 180.

Ulama (Ulamaa; ulema) the learned, knowledgeble people in Islam. the leaders of Islamic society, including teachers, Imams and judges. Plural form of alim.

Ulil 'Amr Muslims who are in charge or in authonty, or who are leaders. The Muslims are ordered to obey all their commands as long as they do not contradict the commandments of Allah Ta'ala and the teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Qur' an, An-Nisaa 4/59.

Uluhiyah (Tawheed Al) Unity of Worship. To believe that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah "Wahdahu La Shareeka'Lah" ("Alone without Partner") . See Tawheed .

Umm'me An unlettered person. This term is used in the Qur'an to describe the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who could neither read nor write and who never received any formal education. To the unbeliever here is food for thought: how could an illiterate man have brought such a completely perfect book (the Holy Qur'an), perfect in its meaning, message, grammar and overall content, if it were not with divine help? No other book exists on earth that has such perfect content and structure. A challenge to all unbelievers! Mankind and Jinn! Assemble together and try to produce just one Surah (chapter) like it. You will never be able to do it, even if you were to try until the Day of Resurrection you will not succeed! No created being has ever been or ever will be able to meet this challenge, for the Holy Qur'an is truly the Book of Allah. Plural: Ummiyeen. See Khatam Anbiyaa.

Ummah (umma) an ummah is a community or a people. It is used in reference to the community of Believers or Muslims. the global community of all Muslim believers. The body of the Muslims as one distinct and integrated community. The Unimah of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, refers to every Ins wal Jinn (mankind and Jinn) born after the final message was revealed through the Prophet Muhammad who have embraced Islam. The Ummah of Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and all his community (those who have lived in the past, those who are alive now and those who will live in the future), can be subdivided into two groups:
1. Ummat ad-Da'wa - the nation that was called upon to believe in Allah Ta'ala and the Last Day.
2. Ummat al-Isteajaba - the nation that responded to the call of Muhammad. Another name for this Ummah is "Al- Ummah al-Islamiah" ("the Islamic Nation"). Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala commanded the Ummat al-Isteajaba to hold together and not to disagree. Unfonunately, this decree has been ignored, and in fulfilment of the Last Messenger's prophecy, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, there are now 73 different groups of Muslims, only one of whom possesses and protects the original teachings of Islam as brought and embodied by him.

Ummiyeen Unlettered persons. Singular: Umm-me. See Umm-me

Umm al-mu'mineen UM AL-MU'MINEEN  means 'Mother of the Believers'. This was the title of the Prophet's wives; (Surah 33 Ayah 6 stipulated that they could not marry after the Prophet's death because all of the believers were their spiritual children.

Umrah this is also called "the Lesser Pilgrimage" which is optional and can be performed at any time. The lesser pilgrimage performed in Mecca. Unlike hajj, ‘umrah can be performed throughout the year. Umra consists of four steps:
1. Put on the Ihram at the appointed Miqat station. Then proceed to Makka reciting the Talbiyah (aloud for men and quietly for women). See Ihram, Miqat. Talbiyah.
2. Do Tawaf of the Ka'aba seven times. During the Tawaf one may do any Du'a (and in any language) to Allah Ta'ala if one wishes. But remember to point the palm of the right hand and say "Allahu Akbar" at the start of each circuit. Each circuit starts and ends at the Hajar al-Aswad (the Black Stone). See Tawaf, Du'a.
3. Go to Safa and start the Sa'i to Marwa. The Sa'i consists of walking between Safa and Marwa seven times (each direction is considered as one time). Men must jog between two prescribed points.
4. Shave or trim the hair after the completion of the Sa'i. It is then permissible to change out of lhram.
• Synonym for Ruqba. See Ruqba.

Uqubat the branch of sharia that deals with punishment. (See hudud, qisas, tazeer)

‘Urf custom of a given society, leading to change in the fiqh

Urfut Also spelled as 'Urfut. The tree whose fruit is Maghafir, Forgiveness.

Usul (sing. asl)  Principles, origins.

Usul al-Fiqh the study of the origins and practice of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)

Uzzah a chief goddess in the religion of the pre-Islamic Arabs during the days of Jahiliyyah.


Wafat death (Barah-wafat) Muhammad was born on the twelfth day of Rabi-ul-Awwal, the third month of the Muslim year. His death anniversary also falls on the same day, the word 'barah' standing for the twelve days of Muhammad's sickness.

Wa 'alaikumus salam WALAY KUMUS SALAM   This is an expression that a Muslim is to say as an answer for the greeting. When a person greets another with a salutation of peace, the answer for the greeting is an answer of peace. The meaning of this statement is: "And upon you is the peace." The other expressions are: " Wa Alaikums Salam Wa Rahmatullah." and "Wa 'Alaikums Salam Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh."

Wa'd Promise. "Wa'd Allah Haqqa" ("the Promise of Allah is true").

Wahdat al-wujūd "unity of being". Philosophical term used by some Sufis. Related to fanaa
Wahy  revelation or inspiration placed in the heart or mind of prophets for all humankind by Allah. Auha, Uhiya and Wahyun derive from the same root, 'Wahy'.  The highest form of  revelation is the Qur'an of which even the words are from God.

Wahn  love of this life and hatred of death

1. Literally means "woe be upon you".
2. Name of a pit in Hellfire.

Wajh Literally means "face", but may have other meanings according to its context in the sentence, e.g.:
1. Wajhahu - "his whole self", as in Al-Baqara 2/112.
2. Wajhulah - "the Glory or Presence of Allah", as in Al- Baqara 2/115.
Li-Wajhi'llahi - "for the sake of Allah", as in Al-Insan 76/8.

Wajib   obligatory or mandatory see fard

Wakil WAKEEL  a person who is an authorized repesentative or proxy. Lawyear.

Wali WALEE legal guardian. A friend or protector. Someone who is supposed to look out for your interest. friend, protector, guardian, supporter, helper. used particularly for the person who 'gives' a woman in marriage. Also someone who is a 'friend' of Allah, one of the Sabiqoon and Muqarraboon. Singular of Awliyaa. See Awliyaa.

Walimah a feast after the wedding. The reception.

Waqf  (plur awqaaf) An endowment of money or property: the return or yield is typically dedicated toward a certain end, for example, to the maintenance of the poor, a family, a village, or a mosque  A charitable trust in the Name of Allah, usually in perpetuity, and usually for the purposes of establishing the Deen of Islam, teaching useful knowledge, feeding the poor or treating the sick.

Waqi'a (Al) "The Inevitable Event". Another name for the Final Hour. Surali 56 of the Qur'an. The Khalif Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him, was in the midst of reciting this Surah when he was murdered.

Warrāq traditional scribe, publisher, printer, notary and book copier

Wasaya Wills and testaments. Bequests. Allah Ta'ala commands us to make a bequest of our goods to our parents and next of kin. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/180. The exact manner of distribution of one's goods is complicated and therefore should be studied very carefully before writing out one's will. Basically one can bequeath up to one-third of one's property to whomever one wishes, but the remaining two-thirds must be divided between one's surviving relatives in fixed shares, as delineated by the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

Washm Tattoo mark. It is forbidden for a Muslim to have a tattoo on his or her body. Wasm = tattoo.

Wasil A person who is kind and considerate to his kith and kin.

Wasat the middle way, justly balanced, avoiding extremes, moderation

Waseelah the means by which one achieves nearness to Allah. The highest station with Allah on the Last Day, reserved for the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. (see tawassul )

Wathani A pagan. A person who worships idols, stones, graves, trees, persons, angels or any other deity other than Allah Ta'ala.

Wisaal Fasting for more than one day continuously without taking Suhur or Iftar. This is forbidden in Islam.

Witr a voluntary, optional night prayer of three rakaat. A Salat which has an odd number of Rak'at: two Rak'at, followed by one Rak'a. This Salat is prayed last thing at night before one goes to sleep, or else delayed and prayed at the end of the Tahajjud Salat by those who rise in the night, seeking the pleasure and the face of Allah Ta'ala.

Wudu WUZU a purification (abulution) that must be performed before someone does their salaah or reads the Quran. ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before salat (see ghusl) The way to do Wudu is:
1. Wash hands thrice*.
2. Wash mouth thrice*.
3. Wash nostrils thrice*.
4. Wash face thrice*.
5. Wash right forearm thrice*.
6. Wash left forearm thrice*.
7. Wipe scalp and nape of neck and then ears once,(or twice or thrice).
8. Wash right foot thrice*.
9. Wash left foot thrice*.
*Once or twice is also allowed. See Qur'an, An-Nisa 4/43, Al-Ma'idah 5/7. You must already be in Ghusl for Wudu to be effective. You should ensure that your private parts and underclothes are clean before doing Wudu. Once you have done Wudu you remain in Wudu until it is broken by:
1. Any of the conditions which make it necessary to have a Ghusl. See Ghusl.
2. Emission of impurities from the private parts: urine, faeces, wind, prostatic fluid, or other discharge.
3. Loss of consciousness by whatever means: usually by sleep or fainting.
4. Physical contact between man and woman where sexual pleasure is either intended or experienced.
5. Touching your penis with the inside of your hand or fingers.
6. Leaving Islam.
It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu (or alternatively to do Tayammum under certain circumstances) to do the Salat (Prayer) and to hold a copy of the Qur'an. See Tayammum .

Wuquf Stopping places, particularly the stopping places at Arafah and Muzdalifah during the Hajj. Singular: Mawqif.

Wusta Middle. Salatul Wusta refers to the middle prayer, which is the 'Asr prayer (the third of the five compulsory daily prayers), for those whose day begins at dawn. However, some say it refers to the Fajr prayer. This is because the Muslims follow a lunar calendar: the first day of a new lunar month is only determined when the new moon is sighted shortly after sunset. Therefore the Muslim day begins at Maghreb, and the first prayer of that new day is Maghreb, which makes the third (middle) prayer Fajr.


Ya Allah  O, God!

Yahoud The Jews. This term is correctly used to describe the three tribes of Israel - the tribes of Judah, Levi and Benjamin - who after the twelve tribes had escaped from Egypt with Moses, peace be on him, and settled in the Holy Land, separated from the other tribes of Israel (who were known as the Israelites) and became known as the Judahites. The term 'Judahite' was shortened to 'Judean', which was then eventually shortened to 'Jew'. The Judahite Jews re-wrote and altered the Torah several times and formulated the Talmud (incorporating the Mishnah, the Jerusalem Gemara, the Babylonian Gemara and the Midrash), and their religion became known as Judaism. 'Yahoud' is the Arabic equivalent of 'Judahite'. It is clear, therefore, that the term 'Yahoud' can only really be correctly used to describe the Middle Eastern and Sephardhic Jews; and can only be very loosely applied to the Ashkenazim Jews who are descended from the turkic Russian tribe of the Khazars who embraced Judaism in the seventh century, but who were not originally descended from any of the twelve tribes of Israel. It is for this reason that some commentators identify the Ashkenazim Jews with 'Jewj wa Majewj', Gog and Magog, (since they are 'Jews', but not Judahite Jews), about whom it is prophesied in Ezekiel 38-39 that they will come from their place in the far north (Russia), helped by many nations, and attack the land of Israel, and that eventually there will be a mightly battle in which they will all be destroyed.

Yajooj-o-Majooj  Gog and Magog.

Yalamlam The Miqat of the people of Yemen. See Miqat.

Yaqeen (Yaqin) Certainty. Faith in general is based on the Yaqeen of the believer. It has three stages:
1. Ilm al-Yaqeen - knowledge of certainty.
2. Ayn al-Yaqeen - source of certainty.
3. Haqq al-Yaqeen - truth of certainty.
See Holy, Al-Hijr 15/99

Yar Hamukallah "Allah Ta'ala's mercy be upon you." This is the usual response to a sneezer when he says "Alhamdulillah"("Praise to Allah") after sneezing.

Yarmuk A place in Shaam. Site of a famous battle.

Yasalouna "They ask."

Yatama Orphans. Singular: Yateem. See Yateem.

Yateem (Plur Yatama) Orphan. It is a major sin to harm, abuse or cheat orphans in any way whatsoever. Allah Ta'ala will give a great reward to anyone who takes care of orphans. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/220, An-Nisa 4/2,6,10,127, Al-Isra 17/34.

Yathrib the area where the city of Madinah is situated.

Yaum al-jaza Literally means the Day of Payment. Another name for the Day of Judgement, when mankind and Jinn will be paid what is due to them, either by being sent to Jannah (Paradise) or to Nar (Hellfire).

Yaum-al-qiama (Yawm ul-Qiyāmah) Literally means the Day of Standing; "Day of the Resurrection"; Day of Judgement. This is the day when we will be raised from our graves and will stand while waiting to be judged by Allah Ta'ala. This day has many names, including:
1. Al-Qari'a (Day of Clamour).
2. At-Taama al-Kubra (The Complete Covering). For a complete list of the names and description of the Yaum al-Qiama.


Za'ama Allegation.

Zabur the Psalms revealed to King David

Zabiha see dhabiha Islamic method of slaughtering an animal. It from the root word Zakah (to purify). Using a sharp knife the animal's windpipe, throat and blood vessels of the neck are severed without cutting the spinal cord to ensure that the blood is thoroughly drained before removing the head. See halal

Zahir (zaahir)  Exterior meaning. Manifest, apparent, obvious. A word or phrase is described as zaahir when it has a clear meaning. It may still however be open to interpretation.

Zaid ibn Haritha was one of the first people to accept Islam. He was a freedman of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who treated him like his own son. In the eighth year before Hijra, the Prophet Muhammad, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, gave to Zaid in marriage his own cousin Zainab bint Jahsh. The marriage ended in divorce. It was Allah Ta'ala's will that the Holy Prophet himself should marry her. The Prophet Muhammad's marriage to her, in 5AH, made it clear that an adopted son is not to be legally regarded as a natural son as regards re-marriage and inheritance. If Zaid had been the Prophet's natural son, then the Prophet would not have been allowed to marry Zainab, since a man is not permitted to marry the ex-wife of his natural son. See Qur'an, Al-Ahzab 33/37-38.

Zainab (Bint Jahsh) Wife of Zaid ibn Haritha. She later married the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. For further information See Zaid ibn Haritha. See Qur'an, Al-Ahzab 33/28, 37-38, 50.

Zaidi Islamic sub-sect of Shi'ah, popularly found in Yemen, has similarities with Sunni.

Zakat (Zakah; ZAKAAT) tax, alms, tithe as a Muslim duty; Sunnis regard this as the fourth Pillar of Islam. Neither charity nor derived from Islamic economics, but a religious duty and social obligation. One of the five pillars of Islam is Zakah, which means purification and increment of one's wealth. A Muslim who has money beyond a certain quantity is to pay the Zakah. It is also called the alms due or poor due. It is to be used in eight categories for welfare of the society that are mentioned in the Qur'an, namely: the poor, the needy, the sympathizers, the captives, the deptors, the cause of Allah, the wayfarers, and for those who are to collect it. The amount to be collected is 2.5%, 5%, or 10%, depending on the assets and the method used to produce it. For example, it is 2.5% of the assets that have been owned over a year, 5% of the wheat when irrigated by the farmer, and 10% of the wheat that is irrigated by the rain. The Muslims' wealth tax: One must pay 2.5% of one's yearly savings above a certain amount to the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at least) the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold at the time when the annual Zakat payment is due. Zakat is also due on other things such as silver, animals, crops, etc. For a full explanation on Zakat refer to the relevant books written on the subject. See Qur'an, Al-Baqara 2/43,110,177,2 77, An-Nisa 4/162, Al-Ma'idah 5/58. See Bukhari. See Muslim Book of
Zakat. Zakat is one of the Arkan of Islam. See Arkan.

Zakat-ul-Fitr Welfare payment at the end of Ramadan. A small obligatory head-tax imposed on every responsible Muslim who has the means for himself and his dependants. It is paid once yearly at the end of Ramadan before Eid al-Fitr. See Kitabuz Zakatul Fitr, Bukhari. See Muslim

Zalimun polytheists, wrong-doers, and unjust.

Zallah A major error, e.g. unintentional backbiting. Generally speaking, a person seeks Allah's forgiveness immediately after realizing that he or she has committed a Zallah.

Zalzalah "The Earthquake". One of the names of the Yaum al-Qiama. See Surah 99 of the Qur'an.

Zamzam The sacred well inside Al-Haram ash-Shareef in Makkah.  The water first sprang in answer to Hajar's search and prayers (see Hajar and Sa'y).

Zanaadiqa (Zendiq) Complete and utter unbelievers in Allah and the Last Day. Atheists. One who goes so far into innovated and deviant beliefs and philosophizing, etc. without sticking to the truth found in the Qur'an and the Sunnah to such an extreme extent that they actually leave Islam altogether.

Zanjabil A special mixture that will be in one of the drinks of the people of the Jannah (Paradise). See Qur'an, Al-Insan 76/17.

Zannee Speculative, doubtful. Refers to a text which is open to interpretation as opposed to a text which is definitive, unequivocal (qat`ee).

Zaqqum An extremely bitter and thorny tree that grows at the bottom of Hellfire. See Qur'an, Al-Isra 17/60, As-Saffat 37/62- 66, Ad-Dukhan 44/43-46, Al-Waqi'ah 56/52.

Zarnab A kind of good-smelling grass.

1. Allurements of the world. See Qur'an, Al-Kahf 18/46
2. Beauty and ornaments of women. See Qur'an, An-Nur 24/31.

Zinā sexual activity outside of marriage (covering the English words adultery and fornication) One of the Kabair (major sins) in Islam. Allah Ta'ala has prescribed flogging (100 lashes) and a year's exile for either a man or a woman who commits Zinah and is not married. Although it is not expressly stated in the Qur'an, the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made it clear that a married man or woman who commits Zinah is to be stoned to death. Similarly, homosexuals and lesbians in a Muslim community are put to death. These measures protect the cohesion of the family, and accordingly of the community as a whole. See Qur'an, An-Nur 24/2-10.

Zindeeq Hypocrite or unbeliever. Anyone who does not believe in Allah and who rejects His Messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them peace.

Zoor Giving false evidence. The act of committing perjury.

Zuhr the obligatory salaah, prayer, that is performed in the afternoon right after the sun moves away from it's zenith.

A Glossary of Islamic Economic Terms

Riba, Musharikah, Muzara'ah: what do all of these words mean? They are simply Islamic economic terms you may come across when trying to do business Islamically or reading up on this subject.

Refers to commission, fees or wages charged for services.

Al-fard al-kifa'i
Socially obligatory duties.  Literally, a collective duty of Muslims, the discharge of which by some of them absolves the rest of its performance, such as funeral prayers.  Technically it covers such functions which the community fails to or cannot perform and hence are taken over by the state, such as the provision of utilities, building of roads, bridges and canals etc.

This is a system of state inspection to ensure fair practices in markets. The term is also used in a more general sense to include checking minor crimes on streets.

In trust

Resale of goods with a discount on the original stated cost.

Absolute power of attorney

Al-Rahn Al
An arrangement whereby a valuable asset is places as a collateral for a debt. The collateral may be disposed off in the event of a default.

Safe keeping 

Simply refers to a donation or a grant.

A religious foundation set up for the benefit of the poor. This is plural of the word Waqf (see below). It refers to property that has been transferred to a charity or a trust on a voluntary and permanent basis. The purpose is so that its usfruct may benefit other people.

Bai mu’ajjal
Lit: a credit sale.  Technically, a financing technique adopted by Islamic banks. It is a contract in which the seller allows the buyer to pay the price of a commodity at a future date in a lump sum or in instalments.  The price fixed for the commodity in such a transaction can be the same as the spot price or higher or lower than the spot price.

Bai Muajjal (Deferred Payment Contract)
A contract involving the sale of goods on a deferred payment basis. The bank or provider of capital buys the goods(assets) on behalf of the business owner. The bank then sells the goods to the client at an agreed price, which will include a mark-up since the bank needs to make a profit. The business owner can pay the total balance at an agreed future date or make instalments over a pre-agreed period. This is similar to a Murabaha contract since it is also a credit sale. There is a financial institution in Malaysia that offers an Islamic Visa card based on this type of contract.

Deferred-payment sale

Bai al-Dayn
Debt financing: the provision of financial resources required for production, commerce and services by way of sale/purchase of trade documents and papers. Bai al-Dayn is a short-term facility with a maturity of not more than a year. Only documents evidencing debts arising from bona fide commercial transactions can be traded.

Bai al-salam
This term refers to advance payment for goods which are to be delivered later. Normally, no sale can be effected unless the goods are in existence at the time of the bargain.  But this type of sale forms an exception to the general rule provided the goods are defined and the date of delivery is fixed.  The objects of this type of sale are mainly tangible things but exclude gold or silver as these are regarded as monetary values.  Barring these, bai 'salam covers almost all things which are capable of being definitely described as to quantity, quality and workmanship. One of the conditions of this type of contract is advance payment; the parties cannot reserve their option of rescinding it but the option of revoking it on account of a defect in the subject matter is allowed.  It is also applied to a mode of financing adopted by Islamic banks. It is usually applied in the agricultural sector where the bank advances money for various inputs to receive a share in the crop, which the bank sells in the market.

Bai Salam
A sales contract where the buyer pays in advance for the goods, which are delivered in the future. This type of financing is most often used when a manufacturer needs capital to manufacture a final product for the buyer. In return for paying in advance, the buyer receives a more favourable price (i.e. splits the profit margin with the manufacturer).

Bai al Salam
Contract of sale of goods where the price is paid in advance and the goods are delivered in the future.

pre-paid purchase 

Bai Bithaman Ajil
This contract refers to the sale of goods on a deferred payment basis. Equipment or goods requested by the client are bought by the bank which subsequently sells the goods to the client an agreed price which includes the bank's mark-up (profit). The client may be allowed to settle payment by instalments within a pre-agreed period, or in a lump sum. Similar to a Murabaha contract, but with payment on a deferred basis.

Baitul mal
The Islamic state treasury.


A religious decree.

This refers to Islamic jurisprudence. In addition to issues like the five pillars of Islam, it covers family law, inheritance and commerce, to name just a few areas. Fiqh is based primarily on Quran and Sunnah.  It is an important source of Islamic economics.

Islamic jurisprudence

Lit: uncertainty, hazard, chance or risk.  Technically, sale of a thing which is not present at hand; or the sale of a thing whose consequence or outcome is not known; or a sale involving risk or hazard in which one does not know whether it will come to be or not, such as fish in water or a bird in the air.

Deception through ignorance by one or more parties to a contract. Gambling is a form of gharar because the gambler is ignorant of the result of the gamble. There are several types of gharar, all of which are haram. The following are some examples:

    Selling goods that the seller is unable to deliver
    Selling known or unknown goods against an unknown price, such as selling the contents of a sealed box 
    Selling goods without proper description, such as shop owner selling clothes with unspecified sizes 
    Selling goods without specifying the price, such as selling at the 'going price' 
    Making a contract conditional on an unknown event, such as when my friend arrives if the time is not specified 
    Selling goods on the basis of false description
    Selling goods without allowing the buyer the properly examine the goods

The root Gharar denotes deception. Bay’ al-Gharar is an exchange in which there is an element of deception either through ignorance of the goods, the price, or through faulty description of the goods.  Bay' al-Gharar is an exchange in which one or both parties stand to be deceived through ignorance of an essential element of exchange. Gambling is a form of Gharar because the gambler is ignorant of the result of his gamble.

A person who is in debt and cannot pay the debt from his wealth.

Prophet's commentary on Qur'an 

That which is permissible.  The concept of halal has spiritual overtones.  In Islam there are activities, professions, contracts and transactions which are explicitly prohibited (haram) by the Qur'an or the Sunnah.  Barring them, all other activities, professions, contracts, and transactions etc. are halal.  This is one of the distinctive features of Islamic economics vis-a-vis Western economics where no such concept exists.  In Westem economics, all activities are judged on the touchstone of economic utility.  In Islamic economics, other factors, mostly spiritual and moral are also involved.  An activity may be economically sound but may not be allowed in the Islamic society if it is not permitted by the Shari'ah.

Hajj means pilgrimage to Mecca and other holy places.  Hajj, the fifth pillar of Islam, is a duty on every Muslim who is financially and physically able to carry it out, at least once in his lifetime.  There is a specific period for Hajj, namely one week from the 8th day of the Islamic month of Dhul Hijjah to the 13th day of that month in the Islamic lunar calendar.

Hanifite laws
Islamic school of law founded by Imam Abu Hanifa.  Followers of this school are known as Hanafis.

Lit: bill of exchange, promissory note, cheque or draft.  Technically, a debtor passes on the responsibility of payment of his debt to a third party who owes the former a debt.  Thus the responsibility of payment is ultimately shifted to a third party.  Hawala is a mechanism for settling international accounts, by book transfers.  This obviates, to a large extent, the necessity of physical transfer of cash.  The term was also used historically in public finance during the Abbaside period to refer to cases where the state treasury could not meet the claims presented to it and it directed the claimants to occupy a certain region for a specified period of time and procure their claims themselves by taxing the people.  This method was also known as ‘Tasabbub’.  The taxes collected and transmitted to the central treasury were known as ‘Mahmul’, while those assigned to the claimants were known as ‘Musabbub’. 

unlawful, that which is against Islamic law.

This refers to a public land which is reserved for the use of a person or a group, excluding other members of society.

Lit: letting on lease. Technically, sale of a definite usufruct in exchange for a definite reward. Commonly used for wages, it also refers to a contract of land lease at a fixed rent payable in cash.  It is contrary to "Muzarah" when rent is fixed as a certain percentage of the produce of land.  It also refers to a mode of financing adopted by Islamic banks.  It is an arrangement under which an Islamic bank leases equipment, a building or other facility to a client against an agreed rental.  The rent is so fixed that the bank gets back its original investment plus a profit on it.

Ijara (Leasing)
Leasing is also a lawful method of earning income, according to Islamic law. In this method, a real assets such a machine, a car, a ship, a house, can be leased by one person (lessor) to the other (lessee) for a specific period against a specific price. The benefit and cost of the each party are to be clearly spelled out in the contract so as any ambiguity (Gharar) may be avoided. 

Leasing is emerging as a popular technique of financing among the Islamic banks. Some of the Islamic banks that use this technique include Islamic Development Bank, Bank Islam Malaysia and many commercial banks in Pakistan. 

Under this scheme of financing an Islamic bank purchases an asset as per specification provided by the client. The period of lease may be determined by mutual agreement according to nature of the asset. During the period of the lease, the asset remains in the ownership of the lessor (the bank) but its right to use is transferred to the lessee. After the expiry of the lease agreement, this right reverts back again to the lessor. 

Leasing as a technique of Islamic finance holds a lot of promise and potential to develop into a viable and power tool of financing. At present many Islamic banks are experimenting with various forms of leasing one of which is the lease purchase agreement. In this scheme, the lessee can purchase the equipment at the end of the lease period at a price that is agreed in advance. In most cases, the payment may constitute of the two components: rent and a portion of the price to be paid in the instalments. In another variant of lease purchase agreement, the rent may itself constitute the part payment of the price.

A contract under which a bank purchases and leases out equipment required by its client for a rental fee. The duration of the lease and rental fees are agreed in advance. Ownership of the equipment remains in the hands of the bank.

Ijara wa Iqtina (Lease to Purchase)
The same as ijara except the business owner is committed to buying the equipment at the end of the lease period. Fees previously paid constitute part of the purchase price. This type of lease to purchase agreement is commonly used for home financing.

Ijara-Wa-Iktina (Lease Purchase)
Like Ijara, except that the client is committed to purchase the equipment at the end of the rental period. It is pre-agreed that at the end of the lease period the client will purchase the equipment at an agreed price from the bank, with rental fees paid to date, forming part of the price.

Lit: effort, exertion, industry, diligence. Technically, endeavour of a jurist to derive or formulate a rule of law on the basis of evidence found in the sources.

This refers to hoarding wealth without fulfilling one's legal obligations on it.


This refers to spending in Allah's way, especially to assist the poor and needy.

This is when the state gives individuals ownership or usufruct rights over state land.

This means lending any animal for riding or carrying a load, free of cost.

This means giving concessions that relate to real estate (i.e. giving the right to place a beam on a neighbor's wall).

Istisna (Progressive Financing)
A contract of acquisition of goods by specification or order where the price is paid progressively in accordance with the progress of a job. An example would be for the purchase of a house to be constructed, payments are made to the developer or builder according to the stage of work completed. This type of financing along with bai salam are used as purchasing mechanisms, and murabaha and bai muajjal are for financing sales.

A contract of acquisition of goods by specification or order, where the price is paid in advance, but the goods are manufactured and delivered at a later date.

Lit: stipulated price for performing any service.  Technically applied in the model of Islamic banking by some. Bank charges and commission have been interpreted to be ju'ala by the jurists and thus considered lawful.

Some Islamic Banks give loans with service charge. The Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy established by the Organisation of Islamic Conference in its third session held in Amman, Jordan from 8 to 13 Safar 1407 H (11-16 October 1986), in response to a query from the Islamic Development Bank has resolved that it is permitted to charge a fee for loan related service offered by an Islamic Bank. However, this fee should be within actual expenditures and any fee in excess to actual service related expenses is forbidden because it is considered usurious. The service charge may be calculated accurately only after a certain period when all administrative expenditure has already been incurred e.g. at the end of the year. Hence, it is permissible to levy an approximate charge on the client, then, reimburse or claim the difference at the end of the accounting period when actual expenses on administration become precisely known.

This is tax on land.

This refers to a levy of 20 percent which is imposed on some kinds of wealth (i.e. mines and wealth buried in land that has no owner).

The term refers to a form of business contract in which one party brings capital and the other personal effort.  The proportionate share in profit is determined by mutual agreement.  But the loss, if any, is borne only by the owner of the capital, in which case the entrepreneur gets nothing for his labour.  The financier is known as ‘rabal-maal’ and the entrepreneur as ‘mudarib’.  As a financing technique adopted by Islamic banks, it is a contract in which all the capital is provided by the Islamic bank while the business is managed by the other party.  The profit is shared in pre-agreed ratios, and loss, if any, unless caused by negligence or violation of terms of the contract by the ‘mudarib’ is borne by the Islamic bank.  The bank passes on this loss to the depositors. 

Mudaraba (Trust Financing)
We may act as managing trustee (‘Modareb’) while you are the beneficial owner (Rab El-Maal). It is our responsibility to invest the funds that you provide. Alternatively, our roles may be reversed, when you, as managing trustee, are responsible for investing our funds. In each case, we shall agree on our relative share of any profits.

In the theoretical model of Islamic banking Mudaraba has been suggested a technique which shall provide the basis for the Islamic re-organisation of commercial banking sector. In actual practice of Islamic banking, Mudaraba has not made much progress on t he asset side of the balance sheet, although on the liability side the Islamic banks on Mudaraba accept the funds in investment accounts. Mudaraba is mostly translated in English as profit and loss sharing. 

There is no loss sharing in a Mudaraba contract. Profit and loss sharing is more accurate description of the Musharaka contract. The Mudaraba contract may better be represented by the expression profit sharing Mudaraba is an Islamic contract in which one party supplies the money and the other provides management in order to do a specific trade. The party supplying the capital is called owner of the capital. The other party is referred to as worker or agent who actually runs the business. In the Islamic Jurisprudence, different duties and responsibilities have been assigned to each of these two. 

As a matter of principle the owner of the capital does not have a right to interfere in to the management of the business enterprise which is the sole responsibility of the Agent x. However, he has every right to specify such conditions that would ensure better management of his money. That is why sometime Mudaraba is referred as sleeping partnership. An important characteristic of Mudaraba is the arrangement of profit sharing. The profits in a Mudaraba agreement may be shared in any proportion agreed between the parties before hand. However, the loss is to be completely borne by the owner of the capital. In case of loss, the capital owner shall bear the monetary loss and agent shall lose the reward of his effort. Mudaraba could be individual or joint. 

Islamic banks practice Mudaraba in its both forms. In case of individual Mudaraba an Islamic bank provides finance to a commercial venture run by a person or a company on the basis of profit sharing. The joint Mudaraba may be between the investors and the bank on a continuing basis. The investors keep their funds in a special fund and share the profits without even the liquidation of those financing operations that have not reached the stage of final settlement. Many Islamic Investment Funds operate on the basis of joint Mudaraba.

This is an agreement made between two parties: one which provides ‘100 percent of the capital’ for the project and another party known as a ‘Mudarib’ who using his entrepreneurial skills, manages the project. Profits arising from the project are distributed according to a predetermined ratio. Any losses accruing are borne by the provider of capital. The provider of capital has no control over the management of the project. 

In a mudaraba contract, the person or party who acts as entrepreneur.

Mu'amalah (t)
Lit: economic transaction.  Technically, lease of land or of fruit trees for money, or for a share of the crop.

Lit: sale on profit.  Technically a contract of sale in which the seller declares his cost and profit.  This has been adopted as a mode of financing by a number of Islamic banks.  As a financing technique, it involves a request by the client to the bank to purchase a certain item for him.  The bank does that for a definite profit over the cost which is settled in advance.  Some people have questioned the legality of this financing technique because of its similarity to riba or interest.   

Murabaha (Cost-Plus Financing)   
A contract of sale between the bank and its client for the sale of goods at a price plus an agreed profit margin for the bank. The contract involves the purchase of goods by the bank which then sells them to the client at an agreed mark-up. Repayment is usually in instalments.

Morabaha (Cost-Plus Financing) 
Used if you wish to purchase equipment or goods. We will purchase these items, and then sell them to you at cost - plus a reasonable profit.   

Murabaha is the most popular and most common mode of Islamic inancing. It is also known as Mark up or Cost plus financing. The word Murabaha is derived from the Arabic word Ribh that means profit. Originally, Murabaha was a contract of sale in which a ommodity is sold on profit. The seller is obliged to tell the buyer his ost price and the profit he is making. This contract has been modified a little for application in the financial sectoIn its modern form Murabaha has become the single most popular technique of financing amongst the Islamic banks all over the world. It has been estimated that 80 to 90 percent of financial operations of some Islamic banks belong to this category. The Murabaha mode of finance operates in the following way: The client approaches an Islamic bank to get finance in order to purchase a specific commodity. An interest-based bank would lend the money on interest to this customer. The customer would go and buy the required commodity from the market. This option is not available to the Islamic bank, as it does not operate on the basis of interest. It can not lend the money on interest. It can not lend money with zero interest rate, as it has to make some money to stay in the business. 

Some portion of total finance may be offered as an interest free loan, however, the banking institutions have to make profit in order to stay in business. Hence, what course of action is open to the bank? The Murabaha model offers a solution. The bank purchases the commodity on cash and sells it to the customer on a profit. Since the client has no money, he buys the commodity on deferred payment basis. Thus, the client got the commodity for which he wanted the finance and the Islamic bank made some profit on the amount it had spent in acquiring the commodity. 

There are a number of requirements f or this transaction to be a real transaction to meet the Islamic standards of a legal sale. The whole of Murabaha transaction is to be completed in two stages. In the first stage, the client requests the bank to undertake a Murabaha transaction and promises to buy the commodity specified by him, if the bank acquires the same commodity. Of course, the promise is not a legal binding. The client may go back on his promise and the bank risks the loss of the amount it has spent. In the second stage, the client purchases the good acquired by the bank on a deferred payments basis and agrees to a payment schedule. Another important requirement of Murabaha sale is that two sale contracts, one through which the bank acquires the commodity and the other through which it sells it to the client should be separate and real transactions. 

The Murabaha form of financing is being widely used by the Islamic banks to satisfy various kinds of financing requirements. It is used to provide finance in various and diverse sectors e. g. in consumer finance for purchase of consumer durable such as cars and household appliances, in real estate to provide housing finance, in the production sector to finance the purchase of machinery, equipment and raw material etc. However, probably the most common and the most popular application of Murabaha is in financing the short-term trade for which it is eminently suitable. Murabaha contracts are also used to issue letters of credit and to provide financing to import trade.   

(Cost-plus financing)  This is a contract sale between the bank and its client for the sale of goods at a price which includes a profit margin agreed by both parties. As a financing technique, it involves the purchase of goods by the bank as requested by its client. The goods are sold to the client with a mark-up. Repayment, usually in instalments is specified in the contract.

The term refers to a financing technique adopted by Islamic banks.  It is an agreement under which the Islamic bank provides funds which are mingled with the funds of the business enterprise and others.  All providers of capital are entitled to participate in the management but not necessarily required to do so.  The profit is distributed among the partners in predetermined ratios, while the loss is borne by each partner in proportion to his contribution.
Musharaka (Partnership Financing) 
This is a classical partnership agreement. All parties involved contribute to towards the financing of a venture. The parties share profits on a pre-agreed ratio while losses are shared according to each parties equity participation. Here again the reason is because in Islam, one cannot loose what they did not contribute. Management of the venture is carried out by all, some, or just one party member.

Musharaka (Joint Venture)
We add our funds to your funds, and participate in the equity of the project. We share profits and losses in direct proportion to our contributions.

Musharaka is another popular techniques of financing used by Islamic banks. It could roughly be translated as partnership. In this technique two or more financiers provide finance for a project. All partners are entitled to a share in the profits resulting from the project in a ratio which is mutually agreed upon. However, the losses, if any, are to be shared exactly in the proportion of capital proportion. All partners have a right to participate in the management of the project. However, the partners also have a rig ht to waive the right of participation in favour of any specific partner or person. There are two main forms of Musharaka: Permanent Musharaka and Diminishing Musharaka. These are briefly explained below: 

Permanent Musharaka
In this form of Musharaka an Islamic bank participates in the equity of a project and receives a share of profit on a pro rata basis. The period of contract is not specified. So it can continue so long as the parties concerned wish it to continue. This technique is suitable for financing projects of a longer life where funds are committed over a long period and gestation period of the project may also be long.   

Diminishing Musharaka
Diminishing Musharaka allows equity participation and sharing of profit on a pro rata basis but also provides a method through which the equity of the bank keeps on reducing its equity in the project and ultimately transfers the ownership of the asset on of the participants. The contract provides for a payment over and above the bank share in the profit for the equity of the project held by the bank. That is the bank gets a dividend on its equity. At the same time the entrepreneur purchases some of its equity. Thus, the equity held by the bank is progressively reduced. After a certain time the equity held b y the bank shall come to zero and it shall cease to be a partner. Musharaka form of financing is being increasingly used by the Islamic banks to finance domestic trade, imports and to issue letters of credit. It could also be applied in agriculture and Industry.

This is a productive asset given to a needy person for a certain period or time. The person uses it freely and enjoys its usufruct.

This means lending items of ordinary use (i.e. domestic utensils) free of cost.

Mudarabah (also called Qirad)
This is a profit and loss sharing contract. In it, one party provides capital and the other manages the enterprise. If there is loss, the provider of capital bears the financial loss while the worker loses his labor. If there is profit, both parties share it in proportions agreed upon at the time of the contract.

This refers to the sale of wheat while it is still growing. It also refers to the sale of unharvested crop.This kind of sale contract is not allowed in Islam.

This is a share-cropping contract whereby the land owner reserves the crop of a certain area for himself. The share-cropping contract of this nature is not permitted in Islam.

One of the most controversial type of transaction, it is a contract of sale in which payment is made some time after delivery of the goods transacted. Used as the basis of modern Islamic banking since the amount charged for deferred payment is in excess of the current market price (usually by an amount approximately equivalent to the prevailing rate of interest).

Musharaka (Venture Capital)
This Islamic financing technique refers to a partnership between two parties, who both provide capital towards the financing of a project. Both parties share profits on a pre- agreed ratio, but losses are shared on the basis of equity participation. Management of the project is carried out by both the parties. 

 A contract in which the owner of the garden shares its produce with another person in return for his services in irrigating the garden.

 It is a contract in which one person agrees to till the land of the other person in return for a part of the produce of the land.

Exemption limit for the payment of zakah.  It is different for different types of wealth.

Qard al hasana
A virtuous loan. A loan with the stipulation to return the principal sum in the future without any increase.

Qard Hassan 
An interest-free loan given for either welfare purposes or for fulfilling short-term funding requirements. The borrower is only obligated to repay back the principal amount of the loan.

Qard Hasan (Interest free loans) 
Most of the Islamic banks also provide interest free loans (Qard Hasan) to their customers. If this practice is not possible on a significant scale, even then, it is adopted at least to cover some needy people. Islamic view about loan (Qard) is that it should be given to borrower free of charge. A person is seeking a loan only if he is in need of it. Hence, it is a moral duty of the lender to help his brother who may be in need. The borrower should not make an effort to take advantage of somebody needs. He should help the needy by lending him money without any charge. The reward of this act is with the God. Hence, it is referred as Qard Hasan (benevolent loan) which signifies the benevolent nature of the act of lending. 

The practices of various Islamic banks in this respect differ. Some Islamic banks provide the privilege of interest free loans only to the holders of investment account with them. Some extend to all bank clients. Some restrict it to needy students and other economically weaker sections of the society. Yet some other Islamic banks provide interest free loans to small producers, farmers and entrepreneurs who are not qualified to get finance from other sources. The purpose of these loans is to help start them their independent economic life and thus to raise their incomes and standard of living.

Qard Hasan 
An interest-free loan given mainly for welfare purposes. The borrower is only required to pay back the amount borrowed

Lit: gambling. Technically, an agreement in which possession of a property is contingent upon the occurrence of an uncertain event.  By implication it applies to those agreements in which there is a definite loss for one party and definite gain for the other without specifying which party will gain and which party will lose.

In a mudaraba contract the person who invests the capital.

owner of capital 

Lit: an excess or increase.  Technically, an increase, which in a loan transaction or in exchange of a commodity, accrues to the owner (lender) without giving an equivalent counter value or recompense in return to the other party.  It covers interest both on commercial and consumer loans.

This term literally means an increase or addition. Technically it denotes any increase or advantage obtained by the lender as a condition of the loan. Any risk-free or "guaranteed" rate of return on a loan or investment is riba. Riba, in all forms, is prohibited in Islam. In conventional terms, riba and "interest" are used interchangeably.

Literally, an increase or addition. Technically it denotes in a loan transaction any increase or advantage obtained by the lender as a condition of the loan. In a commodity exchange it denotes any disparity in the quantity or time of delivery.

Riba al-buyu
A sale transaction in which a commodity is exchanged for the same commodity but unequal in amount and the delivery of at least one commodity is postponed.  To avoid riba-al-buyu, the exchange of commodities from both sides should be equal and instant.  Riba-al-buyu was prohibited by the prophet Mohammad to forestall riba (interest) from creeping into the economy from the back door.

Riba al-fadl
Usury of trade.  It is an alternative term for riba al-buyu.

Riba al-diyun
Usury of debt.

Riba al-nasia
Increment on the principal of a loan payable by the borrower.  It refers to the practice of lending money for any length of time on the understanding that the borrower would return to the lender at the end of this period the amount originally lent together with an increment in consideration of the lender having granted him time to pay.  The increment was known as riba al-nasia.  It was in vogue in Arabia in the days of the Prophet Muhammad. 

This is ancient wealth found buried in land whose owner is unknown

Banking instrument of the early Muslim period.  It was a payment order to draw money from the bank.

This means anything which is given or help offered to others to seek Allah's Pleasure. It also refers to a good act. If it involves spending income, this must have been earned in an Islamically permissible way.

Sadaqah al-Fitr
This is an Islamic levy paid in the month of Ramadan.

The way of Allah as shown by the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad.  The term is used to refer to the Islamic law.

Islamic law derived from three sources - the Quran, the Hadith, and the Sunnah.

Islamic cannon law derived from 3 sources: the Quran; the Hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad); and the Sunnah (practice and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad).

A contract between two or more persons who launch a business or financial enterprise to make profit.


A type of banking instrument used for the delegation of credit during the Muslim period, especially the Abbasides period.  It was used to collect taxes, disburse government dues and transfer funds by merchants.  It was the most important banking instrument used by traveller merchants.  In some cases suftajahs were payable at a future fixed date and in other cases they were payable on sight.  Suftajah is distinct from the modem bill of exchange in some respects.  Firstly, a sum of money transferred by suftajah had to keep its identity and payment had to be made in the same currency.  Exchange of currencies could not take place in this case.  Secondly, Suftajah usually involved three persons.  'A' pays a certain sum of money to 'B' for agreeing to give an order to 'C' to pay back to 'A'.  Third, a Suftajahs could be endorsed.  The Arabs had been using endorsements (hawala) since the days of the Prophet Muhammad.  
Sallallahu alaihi wassallam (SAW)
This is a salutation used by Muslims whenever referring to the Prophet Muhammad.  It is abbreviated as 'SAW'.  It means 'peace and blessings of God be upon him'.

Mutual support which is the basis of the concept of insurance or solidarity among Muslims.

This is a form of Islamic insurance based on the Quranic principle of Ta'awon or mutual assistance. It provides mutual protection of assets and property and offers joint risk sharing in the event of a loss by one of its members. Takaful is similar to mutual insurance in that members are the insurers as well as the insured. Conventional insurance is prohibited in Islam because its dealings contain several haram elements including gharar and riba, as mentioned above.

This refers to the ten percent (in some cases five percent) of agricultural produce payable by a Muslim as a part of his religious obligation, like Zakat (see below) mainly for the benefit of the poor and the needy.

Lit: detention. Technically appropriation or tying-up of a property in perpetuity so that no propriety rights can be exercised over the usufruct.  The Waqf property can neither be sold nor inherited or donated to anyone.  Awqaf consists of religious foundations set up for the benefit of the poor.

This is the Arabic word for a will. Under Islamic law, a person cannot bequeath over one-thrid of his total inheritance, nor can he make a bequest in favor of any of his heirs in addition to his or her share which is fixed by Islamic law.

A tax which is prescribed by Islam on all persons having wealth above an exemption limit at a rate fixed by the Shariah.  According to the Islamic belief Zakah purifies wealth and souls.  The objective is to take away a part of the wealth of the well-to-do and to distribute it among the poor and the needy.  It is levied on cash, cattle, agricultural produce, minerals, capital invested in industry, and business etc.  The distribution of Zakah fund has been laid down in the Qur'an (9:60) and is for the poor, the needy, Zakah collectors, new converts to Islam, travellers in difficulty, captives and debtors etc.  It is payable if the owner is a Muslim and sane.  Zakah is the third pillar of Islam.  It is an obligatory contribution which every well-off Muslim is required to pay to the Islamic state, in the absence of which individuals are required to distribute the Zakah among the poor and the needy as prescribed by the Shariah. 

Zakat (Religious Tax) 
There are two type of Zakat: 

Zakat al-Fitr which is payable by every Muslim able to pay, at the end of Ramadan (the month of fasting). This is also called Zakat al-Nafs (Poll Tax). 

Zakat al Maal is an annual levy on the wealth of a Muslim (above a certain level). The rate paid, differs according to the type of property owned. This tax is earmarked for amongst others for the poor and needy.


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